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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...strategies, and research approaches related to helping people impacted by terrorism. While the social work literature in the United States included related topics such as crisis intervention, trauma, and work with people affected by natural disasters, only the interdisciplinary and international literature addressed terrorism and mass violence in depth (Quota et al., 1995 ; Weine et al., 2001 ). During the ensuing years an expanded social work literature on terrorism, mass violence, and trauma was published in the United States. Social work with...

Channel Panel

Channel Panel   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Panel Under the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act ( 2015 ), local authorities are required to have Channel Panels. The Panels assess the extent to which identified individuals are vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism and arrange for support to be provided to those individuals. Panels must include the local authority and the chief officer of the local police. Whilst the Channel Panel provisions are counter-terrorism measures, the way in which the Channel Panel operates can overlap with the implementation of wider safeguarding duties, especially...

electronic monitoring

electronic monitoring   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...during specified hours. These uses are mainly covered by the Criminal Justice Act ( 2003 ). Separate legislation applies in Scotland . The Prevention of Terrorism Act ( 2005 ) extended the use of tagging to individuals made the subject of a Control Order, an order made by the Home Secretary to restrict an individual’s liberty for the purpose of ‘protecting members of the public from a risk of terrorism...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...New York City on September 11, 2001 , civil liberties groups have questioned some of the methods used by the federal government in its war on terrorism out of a concern that individual liberties have been unnecessarily constrained. The questioned methods include (a) the treatment of detainees at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; (b) the government's increased powers of surveillance under the Patriot Act and the Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 ; and (c) the order signed by President George W. Bush in December 2005 , authorizing the National Security Agency...

Military Social Work

Military Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Air Force social worker dramatically changed. Social workers were increasingly called upon to support airmen and their families, at home with family support programs that addressed the impact of family separation, and abroad, in the midst of the front lines of the global war on terrorism. Traumatic stress response teams incorporated the most current concepts in crisis management and were activated in the aftermath of terrorist bombings as well as natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina. Social workers used specialized training in grief counseling and...

Violence

Violence   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...issue and public health burden ( National Center for Injury Prevention and Control [ NCIPC ], 2002 ). Definitions and Prevalence There are many forms of violence, including everything from murder, homicide, genocide, rape, robbery, physical assault, hate crimes, to war and terrorism. In addition, the environmental contexts in which violence occurs broaden its scope—for example, violence may occur in homes, schools, the workplace, and in communities (urban, suburban, or rural). The relationship between a victim and a perpetrator can further expand the scope...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...rise to powerful multinational corporations, led to the formation of new global governance structures and new forms and areas of international law, and created and made us aware of such problems as cross-border migration and displacement of people, global warming, international terrorism, money laundering, international trafficking in women and children, spread of deadly infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and SARS, and the seemingly unstoppable and thriving business of drug trade. Globalization affects not just the economic and political arenas, but...

Muslim Social Services

Muslim Social Services   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to help those in need in countries outside of the United States. Also, Muslim donations to social service and relief organizations slowed down significantly in the aftermath of September 11, 2001, as many of the major Muslim relief organizations were accused of supporting terrorism. Fifth, Islamic and Muslim Social Service agencies providing direct services are still a very small number of nonprofits nationwide. They still are in the nascent stage of institutional development. Conclusion While Muslim social services are young to the U.S. landscape, they...

Crisis Interventions

Crisis Interventions   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...resolution and growth, or as a debilitating event leading to sudden disequilibrium, failed coping, and dysfunctional behavior patterns” (Roberts, 2005 , p. 20). Many crises are triggered by an unpredictable, overwhelming, fear-inducing, or life-threatening event such as terrorism, acute cardiac arrest, a psychiatric emergency, drug overdose, motor vehicle crash, child custody battle, cancer diagnosis, becoming a victim of a violent crime, a community-wide disaster, or violence at school or in the workplace (Roberts, 2005 ). Definitional Issues Crisis ...

Social Planning

Social Planning   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...welfare was now contingent on clients going to work or undertaking activities, such as education or training. At the dawn of the 21st century, the Bush II administration incurred tremendous expense and trillions of dollars of deficit due to large trade imbalances, a war on terrorism, and the costly war in Iraq. Social planners now face the dubious task of devoting scarcer resources to increasingly complex and systemic social problems. The Foundations of Social Planning Social planning is rooted in the philosophy of logical positivism. Positivism assumes...

Trauma

Trauma   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...involving “actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to physical integrity of self and other” (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 , p. 467) in the DSM-IV . This definition encompasses a wide range of experiences, such as war, torture, natural disasters, terrorism, physical abuse, sexual abuse and rape, assaults, serious physical illness or injury, and death of a loved one. Demographics The 1995 National Comorbidity Survey reported prevalence rates for exposure to any trauma at 63% for men and 51% for women. The most common were...

Alcohol and Drug Problems

Alcohol and Drug Problems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...especially those in the so-called developing world. A number of global and regional partnerships have been forged to combat the use of “narco-dollars” and counter the “three-dimensional threat” of drugs, organized crime, and terrorism (cf. UNIS, 2005 ). Renewed focus on border security and interdiction . Concerns about terrorism have also renewed interest in interdiction at borders with neighboring countries, and at other ports of entry into the United States. Along with stepped up inspection of vehicles and containers transporting people and cargo into...

Advocacy

Advocacy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...programs to the states. “Welfare reform” was passed in 1996 under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act , imposing tighter access to programs for the poor. During the George W. Bush administration, 2000–2008 , the issues of the war in Iraq, terrorism, budget deficits, managed care, increased devolution of policy-making to the states, and faith-based initiatives posed a constant challenge to social work advocates in the public sector. At the turn of the 21st century, the Internet and advanced technology emerged as fundamental...

Disasters

Disasters   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...can be remembered. Disasters from nuclear power stations, toxic chemicals, and other potentially dangerous technologies have been added to the calculation of societal risks since the industrial age. The risk equation has been further complicated in recent years by the threat of terrorism, for which the variety of agents and targets areas cannot always be identified before the event. The increasingly interdependent nature of our world means that localized natural or human-made disasters affect people around the globe. The concept of vulnerability offers a useful...

Migrant Workers

Migrant Workers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...contains immigration and identification document-related provisions intended to improve homeland security. Among these are provisions to change the Immigration and Nationality Act ( INA ) with respect to asylum and other types of relief from removal, and to expand the terrorism-related grounds for alien inadmissibility and deportation. Additionally, the Act sets standards for state-issued driver's licenses and personal identification cards. These guidelines pose serious concern for those migrant workers who are in the country illegally, by limiting...

Police Social Work

Police Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...assistance with social problems that are dispatched to police officers, and improving the well-being of police officers. Another focus for collaboration is the provision of early intervention and other services to victims and survivors of traumatic incidents, disasters, and terrorism. This includes helping first responders, such as police officers, to cope in the aftermath of such events. Under the leadership of the New York City Police Department's ( NYPD ) Community Affairs Mental Health Team leader (Telesco, 2002 ), police social workers played a role...

Christian Social Services

Christian Social Services   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...structures as the cause of poverty and suffering, referencing the Old Testament book of Micah: “Micah knew that we will not beat our swords into plowshares; we will not overcome war, will not be safe, will not protect our families, and will not prevent further wars—or further terrorism—until more people have their own vines and fig trees” (Wallis, 2005 , p. 192). In short, Christian thought also perceives that persons in poverty and suffering are victims of unjust social and economic systems. Christian Faith and Social Services Although awareness of need...

Health Care

Health Care   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...health is impacted by a common source of personal stress; from “cure” efforts to “harm reduction”; from acute to chronic disease-management; and to addressing communities with high rates of certain health problems; crisis intervention with individual and community victims of terrorism; and outreach to newly diagnosed groups of people to offer counseling and support. Two challenges the social worker faces are finding affordable resources for clients without health insurance to cover those needs, or personal resources to afford them; and brief contacts with...

Health Care Reform

Health Care Reform   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...by 2012 (Citizens Health Care Working Group, 2006 ). Health care played an important role in the 2006 election (Gorin, 2007 ). One poll taken immediately before and on the day of the election found that voters were more concerned about health care than they were about terrorism, taxes, and immigration (Lake Research Partners, 2006 ). While the economy and jobs were the most important domestic issues, health care played a role since health care inflation was identified as the top economic concern. By a wide margin (51–32%), voters also expressed...

Research

Research   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...developed from the native country and other countries; and comparative research between two or more populations (Tripodi & Potocky-Tripodi, 2007 ). Attention to the social, economic, and health needs of immigrants and refugees, resettlement and acculturation, the global war on terrorism, impact of famine and genocide, health care issues such as HIV, the burden of mental illness, cancer, and health literacy are areas of international research. Social capitol, micro-enterprise, community development, social policy, prevention of abuse, neglect and disease, child...

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