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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,748 words

...the hijacking of planes. In the 1970s the term “international terrorism” began to be used to cover acts of violence committed by political groups outside the country in which they were primarily active. The other term that emerged at the same time, “state terrorism,” referred to encouragement, or alleged encouragement, by states of such acts of violence. Taking terrorism in its second, anti-state, sense, there can be said to be three main phases of its history. There is first a prehistory of terrorism, in the sense of acts which would today be called terrorist....

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,757 words

...; 9/11 ; and Revolution . ] Bibliography Cronin, Audrey Kurth , and James M. Ludes , eds. Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Gearty, Conor , ed. Terrorism . (Aldershot, U.K., 1996). Guelke, Adrian . The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System . (London, 1995). Laqueur, Walter . Terrorism . 2d ed. (New York, 1988). Rubenstein, Richard . Alchemists of Revolution: Terrorism in the Modern World . (New York, 1987). Fred...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,619 words

...as a response to the USA's foreign policy: terrorism is governed by political logic. From this point of view, terrorism directed at the USA and its allies is an example of ‘blowback’—a form of asymmetric warfare. This analysis sees terrorism as a consequence of the foreign policy of the major powers. An opposed interpretation, which became increasingly important as it was embraced by influential neo-conservatives in the USA, understands terrorism as an expression of ‘Muslim rage’. This regards terrorism as a result of what is considered to be Islam's failure...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

David Carlton

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,045 words

... Term with no agreed definition among governments or academic analysts, but almost invariably used in a pejorative sense, most frequently to describe life‐threatening actions perpetrated by politically motivated self‐appointed sub‐state groups. But if such actions are carried out on behalf of a widely approved cause, say the Maquis seeking to destabilize the Government of Vichy France, then the term ‘terrorism’ is usually avoided and something more friendly is substituted. In short, one person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter. Terrorism as...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,772 words

...; Third World ; and USA PATRIOT Act .] Cronin, Audrey Kurth , and James M. Ludes , eds. Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Gearty, Conor , ed. Terrorism . (Aldershot, UK, 1996). Guelke, Adrian . The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System . (London, UK, 1995). Laqueur, Walter . Terrorism . 2d ed. (New York, 1988). Rubenstein, Richard . Alchemists of Revolution: Terrorism in the Modern World . (New York, 1987). Fred Halliday...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,608 words

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

terrorism

terrorism ((in relation to India))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
126 words

... (in relation to India) The use of purposeful and undiscriminating violence to inculcate fear in order to fulfil particular economic, political, or ideological aims. Currently, the most prominent terrorist groups in India are the indigenous Indian Mujahideen, the Students Islamic Movement of India, Lashkar-e-Toiba (which orchestrated the Mumbai attacks (2008) ), and Jaish-e-Mohammed . They have all carried out multiple bomb attacks across several Indian states since the 1990s. Several of these groups have historically and/or contemporarily been given...

terrorism

terrorism (in relation to China)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
136 words

...terrorism ( in relation to China ) The use of purposeful and undiscriminating violence to inculcate fear in order to fulfil particular political, ideological, or economic aims. Currently, the most prominent terrorist groups in China are those associated with the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region , as well as those from the Tibetan Autonomous Region . There has been a rapid rise in Uyghur-related terrorist incidents in China in the last decade, involving indiscriminate gun, knife, and (suicide) bomb attacks, which have on occasion precipitated mass interethnic...

cyber-terrorism

cyber-terrorism   Quick reference

Russell Buchan

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
261 words

...terrorism Cyber-terrorism refers to the use of cyberspace by organizations with the intentional aim to promote terrorist propaganda, recruitment, incitement, revenue generation, training, and acts of disruption. The United Nations Security Council has determined that such online terrorist activities threaten international peace and security, and has urged member states to prohibit incitement to commit terrorism, take active measures to prevent incitement, and deny safe haven to persons guilty of incitement. Importantly, it is incontrovertible that ...

Terrorism, Domestic

Terrorism, Domestic   Reference library

Tom Brister

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,375 words

...one particular feature or cause common to “terrorism.” Many younger Americans, for example, might be surprised to learn that terrorism and terrorists have been of major concern since at least the 1960 s, when disgruntled individuals began to hijack airplanes for the purpose of defecting to Cuba . Terrorism in the 1970 s referred almost exclusively to bombings of prominent landmarks and institutions by radical left-wing youth; in the 1980 s the Ronald Reagan administration initiated an international “war on terrorism” against non-state radicals and their...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Terrorism and Counterterrorism   Reference library

Frank Foley and Max Abrahms

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,342 words

...Terrorism Becoming More Threatening? Journal of Conflict Resolution 44, 307–32. Enders, W. , Sandler, T. , and Cauley, J. (1990) UN Conventions, Terrorism, and Retaliation in the Fight against Terrorism: An Econometric Evaluation. Terrorism and Political Violence 2 (1), 489–516. Engene, J.O. (2004) Terrorism in Western Europe: Explaining the Trends since 1950 . Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Fair, C.C. , and Shepherd, B. (2006) Who Supports Terrorism? Evidence from Fourteen Muslim Countries. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 29 (1),...

Intelligence and Terrorism

Intelligence and Terrorism   Reference library

Erik J. Dahl

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,688 words

...304–21. Cooper, H.H.A. (1978) Terrorism and the Intelligence Function. In M.H. Livingston , L.B. Kress , and M.G. Wanek (eds.) International Terrorism in the Contemporary World . Westport: Greenwood, pp. 287–96. Copeland, T.E. (2001) Is the “New Terrorism” Really New? An Analysis of the New Paradigm of Terrorism. Journal of Conflict Studies 21 (2), 91–105. Copeland, T.E. (2007) Fool Me Twice: Intelligence Failure and Mass Casualty Terrorism . Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff. Cronin, B. (2005) Intelligence, Terrorism, and National Security. Annual...

Terrorism and Migration

Terrorism and Migration   Reference library

Gilberto Rosas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
701 words

...“The Managed Violences of the Borderlands: Treacherous Geographies, Policeability, and the Politics of Race.” Latino Studies 4, no. 4 (2006): 401–418. Vice-President’s Task Force on Combatting Terrorism . Combatting Terrorism: The Official Report of the Cabinet-Level Task Force Chaired by Vice President George Bush . International Security and Terrorism Series 3. Roncocas, N.J.: DIANE, 1987. Gilberto...

Terrorism, Middle East

Terrorism, Middle East   Reference library

Tom Brister

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,110 words

...in the CIA’s War on Terrorism . (New York, 2003). Banks, William C., Mitchel B. Wallerstein, and Renee de Nevers. Combating Terrorism: Strategies and Approaches . (Washington, D.C., 2007). Bohn, Michael K. The Achille Lauro Hijacking: Lessons in the Politics and Prejudices of Terrorism . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Burton, Fred. Ghost: Confessions of a Counterterrorism Agent . (New York, 2009). Davis, Brian L. Qaddafi, Terrorism, and the Origins of the US Attack on Libya . (New York, 1990). Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism . Rev. and expanded ed....

Suicide Terrorism Theories

Suicide Terrorism Theories   Reference library

Susanne Martin and Ami Pedahzur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,367 words

...2 As referenced here, suicide terrorism refers to the subset of suicide attacks meeting the definition of terrorism where there is a reasonable expectation that an attacker will die in the process of carrying out an attack. It is understood that groups engaging in suicide terrorism may also carry out suicide attacks that are not terrorism, as well as nonsuicide attacks, which may or may not meet the definitional criteria of terrorism. The Different Perspectives To Studying Suicide Terrorism The research on suicide terrorism is divided along disciplinary...

Women and Terrorism

Women and Terrorism   Reference library

Mia Bloom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,298 words

...and Terrorism The Third Oldest Profession for Women Women’s involvement in political violence is not a recent phenomenon. History is replete with examples of women and terrorism. Women were among the first to join terrorist movements and, in fact, the very first person tried in a court of law for terrorism was Vera Zasulich, an anarchist for Narodnaya Volya, the People’s Will, in Russia ( Siljak, 2008 ). In 1878 , Zasulich was tried for the attempted assassination of Governor Trepov in St. Petersburg. At her trial, she said that she was not a murderer but...

International Organization and Terrorism

International Organization and Terrorism   Reference library

Peter Romaniuk

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,893 words

...Terrorism 5 (1 and 2), 139–60. Badey, T.J. (1998) Defining International Terrorism: A Pragmatic Approach. Terrorism and Political Violence 10 (1), 90–107. Bailey, S.D. (1993) The UN Security Council and Terrorism. International Relations 11 (6), 533–53. Barnett, M.N. , and Finnemore, M. (2004) Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics . Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Bassiouni, M.C. (1975a) Methodological Options for International Legal Control of Terrorism. In M.C. Bassiouni (ed.) International Terrorism and...

Terrorism and Foreign Policy

Terrorism and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Amanda Skuldt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,414 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Terrorism and Counter Terrorism: A Communication Model. Terrorism and Political Violence 14 (2), 79. Crelinsten, R.D. , and Schmid, A. (1992) Western Response to Terrorism: A Twenty-Five Year Balance Sheet. Terrorism and Political Violence 4 (4), 307–340. Crenshaw, M. (1983) Terrorism, Legitimacy and Power: The Consequences of Political Violence . Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. Crenshaw, M. (1989a) Terrorism and International Cooperation . New York: Institute for East-West Security Studies. Crenshaw, M. (1989b) On Terrorism and...

Terrorism and Religion: Palestine

Terrorism and Religion: Palestine   Reference library

Arie Perliger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,540 words

...Hamas: Politics, charity, and terrorism in the service of jihad . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Longo, M. , & Lust, E. (2012). The power of arms: Rethinking armed parties and democratization through the Palestinian elections. Democratization , 19 (2), 258–285. Matesan, I. E. (2012). What makes negative frames resonant? Hamas and the appeal of opposition to the peace process. Terrorism and Political Violence , 24 (5), 671–705. Merārî, A. , & Elad, S. (1986). The international dimension of Palestinian terrorism . Boulder, CO: Westview...

Terrorism and Foreign Policy

Terrorism and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Brian Lai

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,765 words

...). Given the growth of research on terrorism, many articles eschew defining the concept of terrorism; instead, they rely on a shared conception of terrorism and operational definitions used to collect data. The other aspect of defining terrorism for studies on foreign policy and terrorism is the distinction between domestic and transnational (or international) terrorism. The primary conceptual difference is whether a group targets conationals or foreign nationals. Domestic terrorism is generally defined as terrorism where the location, actor, and target...

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