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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
348 words

... A premeditated act of violence and intimidation directed against civilians and intended to achieve clear political aims. Beyond this simple definition, there is much dispute over what terrorism actually means. Most official or government definitions restrict terrorism to organized non-state actors such as insurgents and revolutionaries. Critical scholars, however, suggest that states also use terrorist methods and tactics. This is certainly true from an historical perspective. Stalin’s Great Terror in 1930s USSR was designed to achieve mass repression,...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The use of unauthorized and spectacular violence and intimidation for political purposes. http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~cstpv/ Website of the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political...

war on terrorism

war on terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on terrorism ( war on terror ) An operation initiated by the United States government under George W. Bush, using legal, military, personal, and political actions to limit the spread of terrorism after 9/11. Graham (2006, Int. J. Urb. & Reg. Res. 30, 2) describes the reworking of US cities in order to construct them as ‘homeland’ spaces, re-engineered in the interests of ‘national security’, while Dalby (2007, Geopolitics 12, 4) outlines the ‘dichotomous mapping of the world into civilized core and dangerous periphery’. Thobani (2007) Feminist...

rogue state

rogue state   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
94 words

...state A term circulating within US foreign policy circles in the 1990s to describe those countries the USA deemed a threat to world peace and stability. They were identified on the basis of several criteria: developing weapons of mass destruction; sponsoring terrorism; abusing human rights; supporting organized criminal activities ( see narco state ). North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia, and Cuba are among the countries described this way but critics point out that the USA may itself pose the greatest threat to stability through its military...

violence

violence   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
139 words

...cause harm or physical injury, either actual or threatened. Violence may be directed towards oneself (e.g. suicide), towards others (inter-personal violence), or by one collective against another, including in the form of political violence ( see crime ; sexual violence ; terrorism ; war ). Although violence is often thought of as direct or immediate, Norwegian sociologist Johan Galtung conceptualized ‘structural violence’ as the systematic prevention of individuals’ potential by government action; racial discrimination is an example ( see racism ). US...

security

security   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
197 words

...upon one’s immediate environment ( see fear ). Or it may be more collective, as in ‘national security’ or ‘global security’ ( see risk ). Threats can be real or imagined, imminent or in the future. Governments concerned with new threats to security, such as climate change, terrorism, biohazards, etc., do not just engage in technological or organizational responses ( see biosecurity ). They also generate new discourses of fear, security, possible futures, which may in turn construct imagined geographies of safety and danger. The proliferation of ...

fear

fear   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
249 words

...focused on the public projection of fear with respect to other vulnerable groups, especially children, and how this has reconfigured their time-space routines. A second body of work addresses the geopolitics of fear in the context of globalization , national security , and terrorism ( Pain and Smith 2008 ). Here, how discourses of fear circulate beyond and between locales, how it is manipulated, and how it is felt, particularly by minority groups and marginalized individuals, are all topics of ongoing study. Further reading Pain, R. and Smith, S. ...

biopolitics

biopolitics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
442 words

...for example. Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri emphasize the possibilities of a biopolitical counterpoint to biopower arising from the body and its forces ( see multitude ). Human geographers are engaging with biopolitics in a number of ways, including: the geography of war, terrorism, and violence; biometric techniques at political borders; colonial government; famine; and environmental disasters. See also biosecurity . Further reading Legg, S. (2007), Spaces of Colonialism: Delhi’s Urban Governmentalities . Schlosser, K. (2008), ‘Bio-political...

disaster

disaster   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
461 words

...disaster was particularly high. This kind of information feeds into national and regional Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) strategies ( see vulnerability ). References Cutter, S. L. , Richardson, D. B. , and Wilbanks, T. J. (eds.) (2004), The Geographical Dimensions of Terrorism . Klinenberg, E. (2002), Heat Wave: a Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago . Smith, N. (2006), ‘There’s no such thing as a natural disaster, understanding Katrina: perspectives from the social sciences’, Social Science Research Council, Washington, DC. World Bank, Natural...

political geography

political geography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
804 words

.... Indeed, globalization has reopened older debates about the relations between territory, identity, and boundaries. Wars in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq, and the related ‘war on terror’ have prompted a greater interest in violence, both state and non-state ( see terrorism ; war ). Political ecology marks the overlap between political geography and a concern for nature , resources, and the environment. Given the significance of climate change , food security , and oil resources, political geographers have in some ways revived the...

G8

G8   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A group comprising France, the United States, Britain, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada, and Russia. The G7/8 Summit deals with macroeconomic management, international trade, and relations with developing countries. Questions of East–West economic relations, energy, and terrorism have also been of recurrent concern. Recently, the summit agenda has broadened considerably to include microeconomic issues such as employment and the information highway, transnational issues such as the environment, crime, and drugs, and a host of political-security issues ranging from...

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...applied both its surveillance and technical assistance work to the development of standards and codes of good practice in its areas of responsibility, and to the strengthening of financial sectors. The IMF also plays an important role in the fight against money-laundering and terrorism’ (IMF website). The IMF doesn’t get a good press from geographers, largely through its role in promoting structural adjustment policies: as a result of austerity programmes sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF, ‘the 1980s and 1990s were the “lost decades” for development in...

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