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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Conservation

Conservation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...action revolutionary action • Following events in the media • Letter writing • Attending meetings and demonstrations • Organizing events, boycotts, and lobbying efforts • Picketing and committing acts of obstruction • Engaging in complete civil disobedience, sabotage, and terrorism • Signing petitions • Voting in local and national elections • Joining groups • Leafleting and collecting money • Doing research and writing • Engaging in ethical shoplifting • Responding to surveys and questionnaires • Making donations • Organizing campaigns and fund-raising •...

Conservation

Conservation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Direct Action Revolutionary Action Following events in the media • Letter writing • Attending meetings and demonstrations • Organizing events, boycotts, and lobbying efforts • Picketing and committing acts of obstruction • Engaging in complete civil disobedience, sabotage, and terrorism • Signing petitions • Leafleting and collecting money • Doing research and writing • Engaging in ethical shoplifting • Voting in local and national elections • Joining groups • Boycotting goods, companies, or institutions • Organizing campaigns and fund-raising • Lecturing and...

Nuclear Hazards

Nuclear Hazards   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...new entrants to the nuclear weapons club (such as India and Pakistan) join other countries that are thought to have nuclear weapons or the ability to build them, such as North Korea, Iran, South Africa, Israel, Brazil, and perhaps Iraq. Finally, the prospect of nuclear terrorism as a crime is increasing as it becomes easier to buy the necessary weapons on the black market. The problem is that a major nuclear accident or explosion, fire, or weapon use anywhere in the world affects people's perceptions of nuclear hazards everywhere. The no-nuclear option...

Nuclear Winter

Nuclear Winter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,449 words
Illustration(s):
2

....” Nature 317 (1985): 35–39. Thompson, S. L. , and S. H. Schneider . “ Nuclear Winter Reappraised .” Foreign Affairs 64 (1986): 981–1005. Toon, O. B. , et al. “ Atmospheric Effects and Societal Consequences of Regional Scale Nuclear Conflicts and Acts of Individual Nuclear Terrorism .” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7 (2007a) 1973–2002. Toon, O. B. , et al. “ Consequences of Regional-scale Nuclear Conflicts .” Science 315 (2007b): 1224–1225. Toon, O. B. , Alan Robock , and Richard P. Turco . “ Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War .” Physics...

Food

Food   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...rural population growth forced millions of subsistence farmers in the 1960s and 1970s to expand cultivation and herding into areas recognized as drought prone and unsuitable for sustainable food production. Drought, desertification, and locust infestations, along with genocide, terrorism, religious antagonisms, and political uncertainty, reduced food production and food availability in the 1980s and 1990s. The end result was a series of horrendous famines and the loss of millions of lives. Africa, currently the world's continent with the highest proportion of...

hazard

hazard   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Disaster Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Environment, Sociology
Length:
84 words

...system. Common distinctions are made between man-made and natural as well as intentional and non-intentional hazards. Man-made hazards are, for example, nuclear reactors and chemicals, while a natural hazard could be volcanic activity. Intentional man-made hazards include terrorism and war, while an industrial accident could be interpreted as originating with a non-intentional man-made hazard such as a faulty...

ecological disaster

ecological disaster   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Disaster Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Environment, Sociology
Length:
170 words

...be referred to as an environmental disaster. Ecological disasters are most often related to human activity, but natural disasters can also turn into ecological disasters. Ecological disasters, however, will often not cover the impact of intentional human acts such as war or terrorism. Ecological disasters can result in widespread disease and death of plants and animals, and could lead to the collapse of whole ecosystems. Human-induced ecological disasters will often either occur as the consequence of technical accidents (e.g. oil spills and nuclear...

Climate Change Communication in Italy

Climate Change Communication in Italy   Reference library

Lorenzo Beltrame, Massimiano Bucchi, and Enzo Loner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,432 words
Illustration(s):
7

...terrorism, major global economic downturn, poverty, lack of food, drinking water, proliferation of nuclear weapons, spread of infectious disease). In Eurobarometer 75.4 the options were: armed conflicts, availability of energy, climate change, economic situation, international terrorism, poverty, hunger and lack of drinking water, spread of infectious diseases, the increasing world population, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In Eurobarometer 80.2 they again changed, to: armed conflicts, climate change, international terrorism, poverty,...

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict   Reference library

Courtney Plante, Johnie J. Allen, and Craig A. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(e.g., in the wake of a natural disaster) or if it contributes to uncertainty about one’s own future ( Goodhand, 2003 ; Nafziger & Auvinen, 2002 ; Ohlsson, 2000 ). Terrorism Susceptibility In extreme cases of perceived inequality, poverty, or in situations with considerable, rapid-onset uncertainty about one’s own future, individuals are more easily recruited into terrorism, a particularly extreme form of violent behavior. The motivations of terrorists involve a complex interplay of social and environmental conditions (e.g., Kruglanski et al., ...

Communication Strategies of Environmental NGOs and Advocacy Groups

Communication Strategies of Environmental NGOs and Advocacy Groups   Reference library

Steven Yearley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...sets of IPCC reports and, overwhelmingly, signed up to the 2015 UN Paris Agreement. Indeed, in January 2004 the U.K. government’s chief scientific adviser Sir David King had already given his judgment that climate change posed a greater threat to contemporary societies than terrorism. 5 A large part of ENGOs’ efforts—even those with scientists on their staff—have accordingly been directed at restating and emphasizing official findings, identifying novel ways to publicize the message, and countering the claims of global-warming sceptics. The difficult part...

Communicating about Nuclear Energy and Climate Change

Communicating about Nuclear Energy and Climate Change   Reference library

Shirley S. Ho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...plants. In Turkey, Ertör-Akyazi et al. ( 2012 ) showed that knowledge of climate change, engagement in environmental issues, and environmental optimism were positively related to public endorsement of nuclear energy. Furthermore, Americans who were more knowledgeable about terrorism and nuclear security tend to indicate a lower likelihood that nuclear power plants would increase the chance of terrorist attacks ( Li et al., 2012 ). In a study of the Chinese population, Sun and Zhu ( 2014 ) analyzed whether information about nuclear energy could increase...

Climate Change Communication in Turkey

Climate Change Communication in Turkey   Reference library

Mehmet Ali Uzelgun and Ümit Şahin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...five different prime ministers ruled the country. This clearly indicated the absence of a hegemonic political center” ( Kaya & Çakmur, 2010 , p. 530). For the barely functioning bureaucracy and the largely delegitimized political system, the main preoccupation was to terminate terrorism, create an impetus for growth, and keep in check the burgeoning inflation. Compared to these wearing tasks, environmental issues were hardly matters of concern. A consequence of the post-coup era, in the media sector, was corporate monopolization ( Finkel, 2000 ). By the year ...

Determinants and Measurement of Climate Change Risk Perception, Worry, and Concern

Determinants and Measurement of Climate Change Risk Perception, Worry, and Concern   Reference library

Sander van der Linden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
18,990 words
Illustration(s):
4

...overall “awareness” and “concern” about climate change has generally increased around the globe over the last quarter century ( Capstick et al., 2015 ; Moser, 2010 ), the public still ranks climate change as a low priority compared to many other societal issues, such as terrorism, health care, and the economy ( Lorenzoni & Pidgeon, 2006 ; Nisbet & Myers, 2007 ; Motel, 2014 ). This low sense of urgency is partly due to the fact that climate change is an abstract statistical concept that refers to long-term changes in the variability of the earth’s...

Elite News Coverage of Climate Change

Elite News Coverage of Climate Change   Reference library

Maxwell Boykoff and Gesa Lüdecke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,086 words
Illustration(s):
1

...circumventing politics and regulations as well as deluding public trust. In December, the 21st Conference of the Parties convened in Paris after terror attacks that temporarily caused concerns about whether this event should be held. Above the fear of further attacks from terrorism, many expressed skepticism as to whether political leaders would make meaningful progress given a long history of inaction or lukewarm engagement on climate change. At this conference, the pressure on countries to take coordinated action increased. Gurwitt and Roberts ( 2015 ) ...

Frame Analysis in Climate Change Communication

Frame Analysis in Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Mike S. Schäfer and Saffron O’Neill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,320 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of news framing. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.). The Handbook of Journalism Studies (pp. 175–190). New York: Routledge. Fahmy, S. (2010). Contrasting visual frames of our times: A framing analysis of English- and Arabic language press coverage of war and terrorism. International Communication Gazette, 72 , 695–717. Ferree, M. M. , Gamson, W. A. , Gerhards, J. , & Rucht, D. (2002). Shaping abortion discourse. Democracy and the public sphere in Germany and the United States. Communication, society and politics . Cambridge, U.K.:...

Fear Appeals in Climate Change Communication

Fear Appeals in Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Joseph P. Reser and Graham L. Bradley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
19,260 words
Illustration(s):
2

...advice. Possible reasons for this evidence-advice disparity are discussed in the pages that follow. Box 1. Representative Views with Respect to the Use of Fear Appeals in the Context of Climate Change Communication But can such appeals to fear (weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, and war) generate a sustained and constructive engagement with this issue of climate change? The answer is usually not. Risk communication and psychological studies add weight to the cautious use of fear appeals. Empirical studies show, for example, that fear may change...

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