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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

smurfing

smurfing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
92 words

...purpose of money laundering . Because the individual payments are below the threshold at which financial institutions are required to report them, the attention of regulatory and law-enforcement agencies can often be avoided in this way. Owing to the threat of international terrorism, however, banks have become increasingly alert to any suspicious pattern of activity. The name alludes to the small identical-looking cartoon characters, the Smurfs. A more formal term is structuring a deposit...

smurfing

smurfing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
92 words

...purpose of laundering money . Because the individual payments are below the threshold at which financial institutions are required to report them, the attention of regulatory and law-enforcement agencies can often be avoided in this way. Owing to the threat of international terrorism, however, banks have become increasingly alert to any suspicious pattern of activity. The name alludes to the small identical-looking cartoon characters, the Smurfs. A more formal term is structuring a deposit...

Algeria

Algeria (business environment))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management in the Middle East and North Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
238 words

...It currently has a population of about 41 million, with around 5 million people living in its capital city, Algiers. In 1956 , oil was discovered in the land of present-day Algeria. The country gained independence from France in 1962 and since that date it has struggled with terrorism, autocratic government, censorship, corruption, and dependence upon oil. Whereas agriculture is the biggest employer in Algeria, the country’s major non-oil or gas industries include cement, phosphates, lead, uranium, and iron ore. The country also has a major services sector,...

money laundering

money laundering   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...This may be achieved in various ways, notably by paying the illegal cash into a foreign bank and transferring its equivalent to a bank with a good name in a hard-currency area. Another common practice is so-called smurfing . Owing largely to the threat from international terrorism, controls on money laundering have become increasingly...

smurfing

smurfing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...purpose of money laundering . Because the individual payments are below the threshold at which financial institutions are required to report them, the attention of regulatory and law-enforcement agencies can often be avoided in this way. Owing to the threat of international terrorism, however, banks have become increasingly alert to any suspicious pattern of activity. The name alludes to the small identical-looking cartoon characters, the Smurfs. A more formal term is structuring a deposit...

Suspicious Activity Report

Suspicious Activity Report   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...alert them to any customer or client activity that is out of the ordinary and that may be linked to money laundering or terrorist finance. Businesses in financial or other high-value sectors are obliged to supply this information under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and the Terrorism Act 2000 if they have knowledge or suspicion that activity is suspect. To file a report is a defence against a potential money-laundering...

laundering money

laundering money   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...This may be achieved in various ways, notably by paying the illegal cash into a foreign bank and transferring its equivalent to a bank with a good name in a hard-currency area. Another common practice is so-called smurfing . Owing largely to the threat from international terrorism, controls on money laundering have become increasingly...

smurfing

smurfing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...purpose of laundering money . Because the individual payments are below the threshold at which financial institutions are required to report them, the attention of regulatory and law-enforcement agencies can often be avoided in this way. Owing to the threat of international terrorism, however, banks have become increasingly alert to any suspicious pattern of activity. The name alludes to the small identical-looking cartoon characters, the Smurfs. A more formal term is structuring a deposit...

Sedition and Espionage Acts

Sedition and Espionage Acts   Reference library

Scott Henkel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech . New York: Viking, 1987. An account of early attempts by the Supreme Court to protect political speech. Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism . New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2004. Thomas, William H. Unsafe for Democracy: World War I and the U.S. Justice Department's Covert Campaign to Suppress Dissent . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008. Scott Henkel...

Taxation

Taxation   Reference library

W. Elliot Brownlee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
3,810 words

...United States—that is, all taxes as a percentage of national income—was lower than that in any other major industrial nation except Japan. Government expenses had soared, however, owing in part to wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the strengthening of defenses against domestic terrorism. For the first time since the Mexican War of 1846–1848 , an administration had rallied the nation for war without calling for any financial sacrifice. Bush had also driven up expenditures through the adoption of an expensive prescription-drug program within Medicare, as well as...

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