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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The use of unauthorized and spectacular violence and intimidation for political purposes. http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~cstpv/ Website of the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political...

biological terrorism

biological terrorism   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...terrorism . Biological terrorism and bioterrorism are terms that came into widespread use in the United States during the 1990s. Both refer to the use of biological agents by nonstate actors to frighten, injure, or kill people (including attacks on crops or livestock). Biological terrorism is distinguished by who terrorists are, what sort of agents they use, and why they use those agents. Biological Agents Biological agents include pathogens (living microorganisms that cause disease) and toxins (nonliving poisons extracted from living...

Eco-Terrorism

Eco-Terrorism   Reference library

Natalie KLEIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,004 words

...acts are sometimes referred to as environmental terrorism. Opponents of the term eco-terrorism believe that the use of the terrorism label is inappropriate as it diminishes the significance of the traditional definition of terrorism. Instead, ecodefense , ecotage (or ecosabotage ), and monkey-wrenching have been advocated as preferred descriptors to eco-terrorism. Although attempts have been made to label industrial or corporate activities that are environmentally destructive as eco-terrorism, this use has not taken hold. Alternative terms used...

war on terrorism

war on terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on terrorism ( war on terror ) An operation initiated by the United States government under George W. Bush, using legal, military, personal, and political actions to limit the spread of terrorism after 9/11. Graham (2006, Int. J. Urb. & Reg. Res. 30, 2) describes the reworking of US cities in order to construct them as ‘homeland’ spaces, re-engineered in the interests of ‘national security’, while Dalby (2007, Geopolitics 12, 4) outlines the ‘dichotomous mapping of the world into civilized core and dangerous periphery’. Thobani (2007) Feminist...

G8

G8   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A group comprising France, the United States, Britain, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada, and Russia. The G7/8 Summit deals with macroeconomic management, international trade, and relations with developing countries. Questions of East–West economic relations, energy, and terrorism have also been of recurrent concern. Recently, the summit agenda has broadened considerably to include microeconomic issues such as employment and the information highway, transnational issues such as the environment, crime, and drugs, and a host of political-security issues ranging from...

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...applied both its surveillance and technical assistance work to the development of standards and codes of good practice in its areas of responsibility, and to the strengthening of financial sectors. The IMF also plays an important role in the fight against money-laundering and terrorism’ (IMF website). The IMF doesn’t get a good press from geographers, largely through its role in promoting structural adjustment policies: as a result of austerity programmes sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF, ‘the 1980s and 1990s were the “lost decades” for development in...

military, the, And technology

military, the, And technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Oxford University Press, 1962. Van Creveld, Martin . Technology and War: From 2000 b.c. to the Present. New York: Free Press, 1989. Zulaika, Joseba , and William A. Douglas . Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Labels, and Faces of Terrorism . New York: Routledge, 1997. Examines the many different definitions of terrorism and the politics behind them. Chris Hables...

Conservation

Conservation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...action revolutionary action • Following events in the media • Letter writing • Attending meetings and demonstrations • Organizing events, boycotts, and lobbying efforts • Picketing and committing acts of obstruction • Engaging in complete civil disobedience, sabotage, and terrorism • Signing petitions • Voting in local and national elections • Joining groups • Leafleting and collecting money • Doing research and writing • Engaging in ethical shoplifting • Responding to surveys and questionnaires • Making donations • Organizing campaigns and fund-raising •...

Conservation

Conservation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Direct Action Revolutionary Action Following events in the media • Letter writing • Attending meetings and demonstrations • Organizing events, boycotts, and lobbying efforts • Picketing and committing acts of obstruction • Engaging in complete civil disobedience, sabotage, and terrorism • Signing petitions • Leafleting and collecting money • Doing research and writing • Engaging in ethical shoplifting • Voting in local and national elections • Joining groups • Boycotting goods, companies, or institutions • Organizing campaigns and fund-raising • Lecturing and...

Nuclear Hazards

Nuclear Hazards   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...new entrants to the nuclear weapons club (such as India and Pakistan) join other countries that are thought to have nuclear weapons or the ability to build them, such as North Korea, Iran, South Africa, Israel, Brazil, and perhaps Iraq. Finally, the prospect of nuclear terrorism as a crime is increasing as it becomes easier to buy the necessary weapons on the black market. The problem is that a major nuclear accident or explosion, fire, or weapon use anywhere in the world affects people's perceptions of nuclear hazards everywhere. The no-nuclear option...

Nuclear Winter

Nuclear Winter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,449 words
Illustration(s):
2

....” Nature 317 (1985): 35–39. Thompson, S. L. , and S. H. Schneider . “ Nuclear Winter Reappraised .” Foreign Affairs 64 (1986): 981–1005. Toon, O. B. , et al. “ Atmospheric Effects and Societal Consequences of Regional Scale Nuclear Conflicts and Acts of Individual Nuclear Terrorism .” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7 (2007a) 1973–2002. Toon, O. B. , et al. “ Consequences of Regional-scale Nuclear Conflicts .” Science 315 (2007b): 1224–1225. Toon, O. B. , Alan Robock , and Richard P. Turco . “ Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War .” Physics...

energy systems

energy systems   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...relatively cheap to build. Natural gas is not as far along toward depletion as is petroleum, but the midpoint of world reserves probably will be passed some time in the next generation, and certainly by the middle of this century. Conventional energy sources are vulnerable to terrorism. Oil pipelines, tankers, and refineries are typical targets in war. Nuclear reactors are a target for the theft of plutonium, as well as for direct attacks. Even with redundancies built into electrical supply networks, transformers and switching equipment are easy to attack, and...

media and science

media and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...in the 1960s drew journalists' attention to scientists' roles in measuring pollution and suggesting remediation approaches. Along with coverage of the tremendous strides being made in biology and medicine, and continued concern about nuclear proliferation and biological terrorism, the range of science news coverage has expanded steadily in all media. During the 1970s a number of major newspapers established special science sections or features; many of these, such as The New York Times weekly “Science Times” section, continue today. Science grabs the...

Food

Food   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...rural population growth forced millions of subsistence farmers in the 1960s and 1970s to expand cultivation and herding into areas recognized as drought prone and unsuitable for sustainable food production. Drought, desertification, and locust infestations, along with genocide, terrorism, religious antagonisms, and political uncertainty, reduced food production and food availability in the 1980s and 1990s. The end result was a series of horrendous famines and the loss of millions of lives. Africa, currently the world's continent with the highest proportion of...

Civil Disobedience, Environmental

Civil Disobedience, Environmental   Reference library

Ayesha KHAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,707 words

...government,” calls all such acts “eco-terrorism.” From this point of view, the victims are individuals and business owners, most of them in natural resource industries, and these acts of civil disobedience are assaults on the free enterprise system and the principle of individual rights. For some, there is no difference between nonviolent civil disobedience and property destruction—all such acts are simply misdemeanors or felonies. It is alleged that the money used to commit these so-called acts of eco-terrorism is “illegally laundered through tax-exempt...

Climate Change Communication in Italy

Climate Change Communication in Italy   Reference library

Lorenzo Beltrame, Massimiano Bucchi, and Enzo Loner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,432 words
Illustration(s):
7

...terrorism, major global economic downturn, poverty, lack of food, drinking water, proliferation of nuclear weapons, spread of infectious disease). In Eurobarometer 75.4 the options were: armed conflicts, availability of energy, climate change, economic situation, international terrorism, poverty, hunger and lack of drinking water, spread of infectious diseases, the increasing world population, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In Eurobarometer 80.2 they again changed, to: armed conflicts, climate change, international terrorism, poverty,...

Tourism

Tourism   Reference library

Ralf BUCKLEY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,196 words

...buses. These have been rather unsuccessful to date, but may become more widespread if local residents themselves adopt the same lower-impact forms of transport. While international tourism is susceptible to economic recession, social change, fashion, political instability, terrorism, epidemics, and many other factors, it is a large and flexible sector that has proven to be very resilient. In addition, the majority of tourism consists of domestic travel that does not appear in international tourism statistics but makes large economic contributions to...

Ethics, Global

Ethics, Global   Reference library

Donald BROWN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,265 words

...they share the Earth. Global problems that have triggered an interest in global ethics recently include environmental problems such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, vulnerability to economic collapse, and new interdependency due to global trade, international terrorism, and international telecommunications. Topics investigated at institutions around the world, including the University of Birmingham (U.K.) Centre for Global Ethics, include the huge disparities between rich and poor, the nature of obligations between developed and developing...

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict   Reference library

Courtney Plante, Johnie J. Allen, and Craig A. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(e.g., in the wake of a natural disaster) or if it contributes to uncertainty about one’s own future ( Goodhand, 2003 ; Nafziger & Auvinen, 2002 ; Ohlsson, 2000 ). Terrorism Susceptibility In extreme cases of perceived inequality, poverty, or in situations with considerable, rapid-onset uncertainty about one’s own future, individuals are more easily recruited into terrorism, a particularly extreme form of violent behavior. The motivations of terrorists involve a complex interplay of social and environmental conditions (e.g., Kruglanski et al., ...

Pakistan

Pakistan (2012)   Reference library

Anita M. WEISS and Muhammad Aurang Zeb MUGHAL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,137 words

...ethnic radical movements were largely replaced by growing sectarian terrorism, and eventually anti-West and anti-United States sentiments in the 2000s. Pakistan was suddenly thrust to the center of the global political arena in the days following the terrorist attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001 . Because it had been a frontline state in the US proxy war against the former Soviet Union in Afghanistan, Pakistan now became a frontline state in the war against global terrorism, particularly against the Taliban-led government of Afghanistan and the...

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