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Overview

terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,119 words

... Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, and the 2005 Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. In addition to these international treaties, several regional treaties have been adopted to combat terrorism, including the 1971 Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism adopted by the Organization of American States, the 1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the Council of Europe, the 1987 Convention on Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the South Asian Association for Regional...

Terrorism and Migration

Terrorism and Migration   Reference library

Gilberto Rosas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
701 words

...“The Managed Violences of the Borderlands: Treacherous Geographies, Policeability, and the Politics of Race.” Latino Studies 4, no. 4 (2006): 401–418. Vice-President’s Task Force on Combatting Terrorism . Combatting Terrorism: The Official Report of the Cabinet-Level Task Force Chaired by Vice President George Bush . International Security and Terrorism Series 3. Roncocas, N.J.: DIANE, 1987. Gilberto...

Street Terrorism, Enforcement, and Protection Act

Street Terrorism, Enforcement, and Protection Act   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gangs

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Law
Length:
155 words

...Terrorism, Enforcement, and Protection Act ( STEP ) This act gave rise to California Penal Code 186.22, which is a law that applies enhanced community penalties to gang-related offences. It provides a legal definition of criminal street gang and gang-related crime. To convict someone under this law, it must be proven that the group in question qualifies as a criminal street gang. From there, it must be proven that the crime was committed either for the benefit of, in association with, or at the direction of a criminal street gang. The individual accused...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,998 words

...or training for terrorism. He issued a twelve-point plan to combat terrorism that would be realized through a combination of the new Terrorism Bill; the new Immigration, Nationality, and Asylum Bill (to deprive nationality and to redefine refugees); new administrative measures (such as memoranda of understanding with recipient countries to guarantee deportees will not be tortured); and some executive intervention in court cases. Of these measures, the Terrorism Bill received the widest attention. Under its provisions on encouraging terrorism and disseminating...

Patriot Act, The

Patriot Act, The   Reference library

Kam C. Wong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
967 words

...new terrorism (related) crimes, such as bulk cash smuggling and attacking mass transportation systems; (5) increasing penalties on terrorism crime; (6) expanding prohibitions against terrorism instruments, such as biological weapons; (7) lifting the statute of limitations on terrorism crimes; (8) requiring background checks for licenses to transport hazardous materials; (9) establishing more procedures to check money laundering; (10) promoting information sharing and coordination of intelligence efforts; (11) providing federal grants for terrorism...

Homeland Security

Homeland Security   Reference library

Kevin R. Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,746 words

...national-security and terrorism concerns. Some opponents of comprehensive immigration reform invoke fears over terrorism to advocate further restrictions in the immigration laws and increased enforcement of the border, and to oppose more liberal immigration rules and more generous treatment of immigrants. Since 2001 , these opponents have prevailed in halting comprehensive immigration reform and allowing the passage only of enforcement-oriented laws by Congress. In the immigration reform debates of 2005–2006 , fears of terrorism resulted in an almost...

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,557 words

...power. The nation-state was further strengthened because ASEAN was weak and incoherent in its response to terrorism. In turn, the United States became reengaged in the region, as seen in its support for the Philippines and Indonesia. But most importantly for human rights, the war on terrorism allowed states in Southeast Asia to justify repression, and in consequence they faced little criticism from the United States. The global war on terrorism gave these a countries a new opportunity to exploit the security nexus of the state in violating human rights....

Anarchism

Anarchism   Reference library

Richard D. Sonn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
447 words

...Steel executive Henry Clay Frick during the 1892 Homestead lockout and the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901 , linked anarchism with terrorism in most Americans’ minds. In 1903 , Congress barred “persons opposed to all organized governments” from entering the United States. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), founded in 1905 , was part of a trend away from terrorism and toward organizing anarchist unions. The IWW enjoyed some success organizing miners and textile workers, but government repression during and after World War...

P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...to live. In itself, this threat inevitably has serious psychological consequences, especially on the young. Only a complete nuclear disarmament as a prelude to total disarmament can assure the spiritual well-being of mankind. 3. Terrorism is to be condemned whether it includes state terrorism, individual terrorism, or terrorism that justifies itself as part of a struggle for liberation. Movements using terrorist methods annul the missions to which they are dedicated and lose all claims to legitimacy. 4. There can be no freedom without peace and no peace...

Emergency Situations

Emergency Situations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,182 words

...In Israel, the High Court of Justice condemned the use of moderate physical pressure as a form of interrogation. Peruvian authorities eliminated the “faceless-judge” courts for terrorism and treason trials. Terrorism reveals the inadequacy of most existing legislation. The latter was never designed for, and no government ever conceived of a threat similar to the 9/11 attacks. Terrorism seeks to engender fear and chaos, struggling to draw them out into the open to suggest the “illegitimacy” of society. In the wake of drafting antiterrorism statutes, democracies...

Terrorist Detention Policy

Terrorist Detention Policy   Reference library

Nathan Alexander Sales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,551 words

...most famously at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba . These detainees are often held for lengthy periods of time and in many cases the government has no plans to charge them with any crime. Three aspects of this detention program deserve further attention: (1) the legal authority to detain terrorism suspects; (2) the sources of and justifications for detention; and (3) the mechanisms by which detainees may challenge the government’s decision to hold them. Legal Authority for Detention.  The Supreme Court has held that the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF),...

Sensenbrenner Act (2005)

Sensenbrenner Act (2005)   Reference library

Ediberto Roman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
638 words

...action it called for led to mass protests (including organized protests by Spanish media, employment community action groups, and clergy), well before the bill could have become law. Critical scholars did not take long to point out the juxtaposition of language regarding terrorism and the provisions regarding immigration in the Act—particularly in Section 118. Subsequent attempts to pass similar immigration reform law also failed. Senate bill S 2454, Securing America’s Borders Act, was very similar to HR 4437—seeking to “provide” for increases in the...

Homeland Security, Department of

Homeland Security, Department of   Reference library

Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,042 words

.... President George W. Bush initially opposed the creation of a new department after the terrorist attacks of 2001 , but then the following year announced plans for a new department that included many agencies with little or no responsibility for protecting the nation against terrorism. The department consolidated customs, border, transportation security, and emergency preparation and response functions at the federal government level and issued grants to states and localities. A cabinet-level department was not the government’s first organizational response...

Puerto Rican Revolutionary Organizations

Puerto Rican Revolutionary Organizations   Reference library

Pedro Cabán

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,330 words

...Communism and Terrorism in Puerto Rico The FBI and the Puerto Rican government linked the Nationalists to the Communists not only to discredit the former but also to justify the incarceration of the leadership of the Communist Party and further weaken the independence movement. In 1954 , Hoover wrote, “like the fanatical Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico, the Communist Party of Puerto Rico has always agitated for the independence of the island commonwealth” ( United Press International, 1964 ). In the 1970s and 1980s, international terrorism had replaced the...

Kenneth Roth

Kenneth Roth   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,695 words

...exists regardless of the severity of a security threat. And the only other comparable prohibition that I can think of is the prohibition on attacking innocent civilians in time of war or through terrorism. If you’re going to have a torture warrant, why not create a terrorism warrant? Why not go in and allow terrorists to come forward and make their case for why terrorism should be allowed? Rather than legitimizing torture through judicial warrants, Roth proposes to prosecute the torturers. With respect to Guantánamo, Roth said in January 2007 : “Detaining...

Right-Wing Violence in Miami

Right-Wing Violence in Miami   Reference library

Liz Balmaseda

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,954 words

...disassociate themselves from past terrorist acts. Unwilling to be perceived as soft on Castro, they did not denounce terrorism per se. They simply did not speak of it, even when minor, sporadic explosions continued to rock exile communities and political strong-arming continued. See also Bay of Pigs ; Brigada Antonio Maceo ; Casal, Lourdes ; Cuban American Organizations ; Cuban Americans ; Cuban Five ; and Terrorism and Migration . Bibliography Central Intelligence Agency . Cuban Counter Revolutionary Handbook . File number 109-584-3387. 10...

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...Terrorism Act of 2001 . The act dramatically reduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies’ ability to search telephone, email communications, medical, financial, and other records. It also eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States , expanded the secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those in-volving foreign individuals and entities, and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism...

Oklahoma City Bombing

Oklahoma City Bombing   Reference library

Richard Lowitt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
410 words

... Waco , Texas , led by David Koresh. The raid, in which some 80 Branch Davidians perished when fire of undetermined origin destroyed the compound, had infuriated McVeigh as an example of overweening federal power. The Oklahoma City bombing stands as the worst act of domestic terrorism in American history. An active survivors’ association soon took shape, and the Murrah Building site became a major focus of mourning rituals, including thousands of poems, memorabilia, and teddy bears left at the chain-link fence surrounding the ruin. In October 1998 ,...

Postville Raid

Postville Raid   Reference library

Erik Camayd-Freixas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
667 words

...National Cattle Congress fairgrounds in Waterloo, Iowa, to be prosecuted criminally. Despite begging to be deported so they could feed their impoverished families, these mostly illiterate peasants were threatened with two to ten years in jail for aggravated identity theft, a terrorism-related charge, in order to force them to plead guilty to felony document fraud, and accept five months in prison, followed by deportation without a hearing. It was an unprecedented criminalization of migrants and the only mass prosecution in American history. Dubbed “Operation...

School of the Americas, The

School of the Americas, The   Reference library

Luis Barrios

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
668 words

...security interests” based on the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 and the ideology of Manifest Destiny ( 1844 ). In 1984 , under the Panama Canal Treaty, the school was expelled from Panama and relocated to Fort Benning, near Columbia, Georgia. As a strategy to cover up the legacy of terrorism, in 2001 the school changed its name to the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHISC or WHINSEC). In a stunning record, the school has graduated more than 65,000 soldiers to date, from eighteen countries in Latin America. Remarkably, as a public relations...

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