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Overview

terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton, Joseph Kéchichian, and Minerva Nasser-Eddine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,376 words

...in acts of terrorism. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks of 2001 , research has focused on “religiously inspired” terrorism (e.g., Zalman, 2008 ). Organizationally, this “new terrorism” is decentralized rather than hierarchical. It was rare to have individuals undertake sole acts of terror (as a lone wolf) in “old terrorism”; in the early twenty-first century, however, such is becoming more common. Definition. Despite the decades of research undertaken in terrorism studies, no consensus has been reached on a definition of terrorism ( Schmid and...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,608 words

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Terrorism and Religion: Palestine

Terrorism and Religion: Palestine   Reference library

Arie Perliger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,540 words

...Hamas: Politics, charity, and terrorism in the service of jihad . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Longo, M. , & Lust, E. (2012). The power of arms: Rethinking armed parties and democratization through the Palestinian elections. Democratization , 19 (2), 258–285. Matesan, I. E. (2012). What makes negative frames resonant? Hamas and the appeal of opposition to the peace process. Terrorism and Political Violence , 24 (5), 671–705. Merārî, A. , & Elad, S. (1986). The international dimension of Palestinian terrorism . Boulder, CO: Westview...

Terrorism and Religion: An Overview

Terrorism and Religion: An Overview   Reference library

Peter Henne

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,699 words

...the similarities in terrorism connected to different religious traditions. Other scholars tried to problematize the nature of terrorism studies and of states’ counterterrorism policies. Richard Jackson ( 2007 ) discussed the development of “critical terrorism studies,” which was a reaction to mainstream terrorism studies; critical terrorism studies emphasize issues with defining terrorism and “the politically constructed nature of terrorism” (p. 244). The latter focus was particularly relevant to studies on religion and terrorism. Marie Breen Smyth,...

Terrorism and Religion: Boko Haram

Terrorism and Religion: Boko Haram   Reference library

Dane Imerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
4,888 words

... Deckard, N. D. , Barkindo, A. , & Jacobson, D. (2015). Religiosity and rebellion in Nigeria: Considering Boko Haram in the radical tradition. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism , 38 (7), 510–528. Gerges, F. (2017). ISIS: A history . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Global Terrorism Index . (2015). Global Terrorism Index: Measuring and understanding the impact of terrorism. Institute for Economics & Peace. College Park: University of Maryland. Hoechner, H. (2013). Search for knowledge and recognition: Traditional Qur’anic students in Kano...

Terrorism and Religion: Christian Fundamentalism

Terrorism and Religion: Christian Fundamentalism   Reference library

Douglas Pratt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,091 words

...extremism and violence, together with biblical motifs and references for violence and extremism. Terrorism. Definitions of terrorism per se are legion. Intimidating the innocent as a modality of action is perhaps one defining mark, as is the fact that terrorism usually involves violent behaviors undertaken for political and/or ideological purposes ( Taylor, 1991 ). Indeed, most government legislation in regard to terrorism generally specifies that terrorism involves nonstate actors deliberately using or threatening to use violence against civilians with the...

Ananda Marga's Tantric Neo-Humanism

Ananda Marga's Tantric Neo-Humanism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,394 words

...political terrorism that were contrary to the official policy of both Ananda Marga and PROUT. In the most infamous act a member was jailed for a 1978 bombing of a Hilton Hotel in Sydney, Australia that killed three people. During this time, Sarkar was imprisoned by Indira Gandhi 's government on charges that Ananda Margiis say were purely politically motivated. He was held for seven years and eventually exonerated by the Indian High Court. It seems the bombing was an agitation that aimed to secure his release from jail. The acts of terrorism had a...

Abbey, Edward

Abbey, Edward (1927–1989)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,811 words

...complex and their lackeys in government.” He regarded sabotage against the tools of governmental and industrial terrorism as a supremely ethical act. He clearly differentiated between terrorism and sabotage, proclaiming that everything from the military strafing of villages in Vietnam to the chaining of trees to clear land for cattle grazing were acts of terrorism against life. Committing acts of sabotage against tools of terrorism was required if habitats were to be defended against indiscriminate pillagers who pursued growth for the sake of growth, a...

Watson, Paul (1950–) and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society

Watson, Paul (1950–) and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,628 words

...such as the “Seal Protection Act,” while reminding us that Gandhi and King also disobeyed laws in contradiction with the just and the right. Watson feels the charge of terrorism carries little weight coming from those who profit from killing, and he finds no credible comparison between damaging property to save life and slaughtering life for profit. For Watson, the true violence and real terrorism lies with those who massacre animals and devastate the Earth. Critics also accuse Watson of being a misanthrope, a Eurocentric imperialist, and a dictator on his ship....

Earth First! and the Earth Liberation Front

Earth First! and the Earth Liberation Front   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
5,565 words

...the Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) and the Police Department in Oakland, where the bombing occurred, asserting these authorities had violated their rights when they publicly accused them of knowingly transporting the bomb and of planning to use it in an act of eco-terrorism. Bari and Cherney won their lawsuit in 2002 and were awarded 4.4 million dollars in damages, five years after Bari's death from cancer in 1997 . She specified that her obituaries list her occupation as a “revolutionary” and urged her friends to remember what Wobbly martyr ...

Landscapes

Landscapes   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,342 words

...reflect embedded values about the nature of the cosmos and the human place within it. What about when secular or profane space becomes sacred, as it has at former Nazi concentration camps, at places like Gettysburg and Wounded Knee, at the Oklahoma City or New York Towers terrorism sites, or when a mountain is transformed into a sculpture of famous American presidents? These are all deemed special and set aside as sacred, but not necessarily on the basis of spiritual experiences or ideas. Religious landscapes are highly complex phenomena. Categorical...

Gush Emunim

Gush Emunim   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,839 words

...Scott Appleby , eds. Remaking the World: The Fundamentalist Impact . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, 462–90. Sprinzak, Ehud . Ascendance of Israel's Radical Right . New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Sprinzak, Ehud . “From Messianic Pioneering to Vigilante Terrorism: The Case of the Gush Emunim Underground.” In David Rapoport , ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations . London: Frank Cass, 1988, 194–216. Weisburd, David . Jewish Settler Violence: Deviance and Social Reaction . Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1989. See also:...

Raves

Raves   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,568 words

...from both sound and landscape, it is believed that such dancing performs a somatic connection to, and enables a spiritual relationship with, the natural world. Graham St John Further Reading Bey, Hakim . TAZ: The Temporary Autonomous Zone – Ontological Anarchy and Poetic Terrorism . New York: Autonomedia, 1991. Castle, Ray . “Doof Disco Didges of the Digerati.” In Alan Dearling and Brendan Handley , eds. Alternative Australia: Celebrating Cultural Diversity . Dorset: Enabler, 2000, 146–51. Collin, Matthew . Altered State: The Story of Ecstasy Culture...

Primate Spirituality

Primate Spirituality   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,744 words

...connections so important for our psychological development and spiritual well-being. When we destroy or pollute areas of wilderness we are harming not only the ecosystem, but also the individual animal beings who live there. From their perspective we are committing acts of terrorism. I went past a beautiful wooded area just last week and saw a sign board announcing that it had been sold. The trees would soon be gone, replaced by houses and tarmac and lawns spread with pesticides, adding to the urban sprawl. Into my head came the words: This land has been...

Radical Environmentalism

Radical Environmentalism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
7,372 words

.... Desert Solitaire . Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1988. Abram, David . Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World . New York: Pantheon, 1996. Ackerman, Gary . “ Beyond Arson? A Threat Assessment of the Earth Liberation Front. ” Terrorism and Political Violence 15:4 (Winter 2004), 143–70. Andruss, Van , Christopher Plant , Judith Plant and Eleanor Wright . Home! A Bioregional Reader . Philadelphia, PA: New Society, 1990. Barnhill, David Landis . At Home on Earth: Becoming Native to Our Place . Berkeley,...

Hirabah

Hirabah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...2007. El Fadl, Khaled Abou . Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law . Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Guirard, James . “ Terrorism: Hirabah Versus Jihad: Rescuing Jihad from the al-Qaeda Blasphemy. ”July 2003. The American-Muslim. http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_hirabah_versus_jihad_rescuing_jihad_from_the_al_qaeda_blasphemy/. Jackson, Sherman A. “ Domestic Terrorism in the Islamic Legal Tradition. ” The Muslim World 91, no. 3–4 (Fall 2001): 293–310. Siddiqui, Khuram M. “The Just War Tradition and Jihad: A...

Ḥirābah

Ḥirābah   Reference library

Chrystie Flournoy Swiney and Peri Bearman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
808 words

...omission, the term ḥirābah has always been characterized by definitional ambiguity and subject to varied interpretation. The ḥirābah verse has been read to include highway robbery, piracy, rebellion, sedition, and, most recently, terrorism. Indeed, in the post–September 11 era, the term has been used to distinguish terrorism from jihād . Advocates of this usage hope to preserve the nonviolent denotations attached to the word “ jihād ” while simultaneously preventing Islamic terrorists from coopting and misusing religious phraseology to justify their...

Civil War and Religion: Salafi-Jihadist Groups

Civil War and Religion: Salafi-Jihadist Groups   Reference library

Emil Aslan Souleimanov

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,581 words

...Perspectives from psychology on radicalization into terrorism. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 618 (1), 80–94. Israeli, R. (2002). A manual of Islamic fundamentalist terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence , 14 (4), 23–40. Jenkins, B. M. (2007). Building an army of believers: Jihadist radicalization and recruitment . (Testimony presented before the House Homeland Security Committee, Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing and Terrorism Risk Assessment on April 5, 2007). Santa Monica, CA: RAND...

Singapore

Singapore   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...British and Australian diplomatic buildings in Singapore. During 2002 the Singapore Internal Security Department ( ISD ) arrested more than thirty persons under the Internal Security Act ( ISA ) for involvement in terrorism-related activities. In January 2003 , a white paper, The Jemaah Islamiyah Arrests and the Threat of Terrorism , was released and debated in parliament. In addition to presenting details of the JI network, and profiles of the detainees, the report also sums up the different measures being taken to tighten security and strengthen...

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