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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

James P. Muldoon Jr.

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...terrorism indicate that a much broader strategic role is emerging for China in the world and may well elevate China to the ranks of the great powers. Background: Terrorism in the 1990s Before September 11 international terrorism was a rather remote concern for China and did not figure prominently in its foreign policy. Its exposure to terrorism was limited, and China had been basically on the sidelines in the fight against international terrorism. Although China had signed and ratified most of the international conventions and treaties against terrorism,...

Terrorism, Domestic

Terrorism, Domestic   Reference library

Catherine McNicol Stock and Laura Koroski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Domestic Domestic terrorism consists of acts of violence perpetrated by an individual or a group against others within the United States , with the purpose of frightening portions of a population or making a political statement. Means of attack can range from shootings to arson, bombings, kidnappings, and sabotage. Usually these acts are extralegal—not officially sanctioned by the state or local governments—although there have been exceptions in the case of white-supremacist violence. Acts of domestic terror have occurred in the United States since...

Anarchism

Anarchism   Reference library

Richard D. Sonn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Steel executive Henry Clay Frick during the 1892 Homestead lockout and the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901 , linked anarchism with terrorism in the minds of most Americans. In 1903 , Congress barred “persons opposed to all organized governments” from entering the United States. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), founded in 1905 , was part of a trend away from terrorism and toward organizing anarchist unions. The IWW enjoyed some success organizing miners and textile workers, but government repression during and after World...

Mozambican National Resistance

Mozambican National Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...opposition to the governing Frelimo Party in Mozambique. See also Political Movements in Africa . Bibliography Minter, William. Apartheid’s Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique . Witwatersrand University Press, 1994. Vines, Alex. Renamo: Terrorism in Mozambique . Centre for Southern African Studies, 1991. Eric...

Toivo ja Toivo, Andimba

Toivo ja Toivo, Andimba (1924–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... to help organize the successor to the OPO, the South West Africa People’s Organization ( SWAPO ), the South African government placed him under house arrest. Despite the arrest, Toivo ja Toivo continued his organizing activities, and consequently was tried and convicted at the Terrorism Trial in 1966 . Sentenced to twenty years of imprisonment on Robben Island, Toivo ja Toivo became a close associate of Nelson Mandela. In 1984 he was released from prison early in what some considered an attempt by South Africa to divide the SWAPO leadership. Instead Toivo ja...

Whiskey Rebellion

Whiskey Rebellion   Reference library

Roger H. Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to enforce the law against defiant citizens. This display of Federalist power, however, also stirred resentments that helped elect Thomas Jefferson president in 1800 . [ See also Early Republic Era ; Regulator Movement ; Rural Life and Society ; Shays’s Rebellion ; and Terrorism, Domestic . ] bibliography Elkins, Stanley, and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism . New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. See in particular Chapter 10, pp. 451–488. Slaughter, Thomas P. The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution . New York:...

Afwerki, Isaias

Afwerki, Isaias (1945–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of meddling in the border demarcation process following the Eritrean-Ethiopian war. The U.S. State Department accused the Afwerki government of aiding terrorists—specifically, of arming Islamic extremists in Somalia—and threatened to put Eritrea on its list of state sponsors of terrorism. Afwerki denied the charges. See also Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; Asmara, Eritrea . David P. Johnson,...

Smith, Ian Douglas

Smith, Ian Douglas (1919–2007)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...in November 1965 , putting Southern Rhodesia on a collision course with rising African nationalism. Despite the imposition of severe international sanctions, Smith remained intransigent for several years, promising the white community that the government would fight “communist terrorism” (i.e., African nationalists of ZANU and ZAPU) to the end, and that Rhodesia would remain a settler state as long as he lived. Meanwhile, he remained a centrist in Rhodesian politics, purging the leadership of right-wing elements. Representing whites of the small town and farm...

New Left

New Left   Reference library

Peter B. Levy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...New Left in their own crusades of the 1970s and beyond. Whereas some scholars present the New Left in a favorable light, as an idealistic movement dedicated to increasing minority rights and ending a disastrous war, others focus more on its excesses, including the defense of terrorism by some and its divisive impact on the Democratic Party and its liberal agenda. Nearly all scholars, however, agree that the New Left played a key role during the 1960s, leaving a powerful legacy of youthful protest and political change. [ See also Antiwar Movements ; ...

Aliens during Wartime

Aliens during Wartime   Reference library

Stephen Mak

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of aliens in a far less well-defined wartime. [ See also Angel Island Immigration Station ; Deportations and Repatriations ; Immigration ; Japanese Americans, Incarceration of ; Terrorism, Domestic ; World War I, Home Front ; and World War II, Home Front . ] bibliography Cole, David. Enemy Aliens: Double Standards and Constitutional Freedoms in the War on Terrorism . New York: New Press, 2003. Kennedy, David M. Over Here: The First World War and American Society . New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. Ngai, Mae M. Impossible Subjects: Illegal...

Ku Klux Klan, First

Ku Klux Klan, First   Reference library

Bruce E. Baker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...across the South in 1871 , the use of the army and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in South Carolina in October 1871 , and the ultimately halfhearted prosecutions in 1872 , they eventually brought Ku Klux Klan terrorism to an end. [ See also Clothing ; Ku Klux Klan, Second ; Racism ; and Terrorism, Domestic . ] bibliography Fitzgerald, Michael W. “The Ku Klux Klan: Property Crime and the Plantation System in Reconstruction Alabama.” Agricultural History 71, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 186–206. Nelson, Scott Reynolds. Iron...

Coastal Resources in Africa

Coastal Resources in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...management approaches tend to rely heavily on external funds. Coastal tourism in Africa is on the rise, but remains limited. The Red Sea includes of some of the world’s best coral reef dive sites, but modest infrastructure, political instability, and concerns over terrorism have kept visitor levels to Sudan and Eritrea quite low. Similarly, beaches in North Africa do not attract as many visitors as they could due to safety concerns. In East Africa, sea wall construction and removal of natural vegetation is contributing to beach erosion and...

Makeba, Miriam Zenzi Makeba, Miriam Zenzi

Makeba, Miriam Zenzi Makeba, Miriam Zenzi (1932–2008)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...passport when she attempted to return for her mother’s funeral in 1960 . Makeba pressed the issue of apartheid, nevertheless. In 1963 she addressed a United Nations special committee on apartheid, characterizing South Africa as “a nightmare of police brutality and government terrorism” and demanding an international boycott of her homeland. In response, the South African government banned Makeba’s music from South Africa. Marriage to African American civil rights activist Stokely Carmichael (now Kwame Ture) derailed her career in the United States....

Moi, Daniel arap

Moi, Daniel arap (1924–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... 1993 presidential election with a mere 36 percent of the popular vote. During the next few years, his political legitimacy further deteriorated, especially after a series of mass killings in areas of concentrated political opposition raised suspicions of government-sponsored terrorism. Moi held presidential elections in late December 1997 . While Kenyans of every political stripe had become fed up with his regime, Moi’s tactics of divide and rule among ethnic groups helped him win a fifth term as president. Kenya’s constitution barred him from running for...

Annan, Kofi

Annan, Kofi (1938–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...September 11 2001 , terrorist attack on New York City and Washington, D.C., had far-reaching consequences for the UN and for Annan. Partly as a result of that attack, the United States became increasingly determined to end Hussein's rule in Iraq, claiming that Hussein supported terrorism. Annan's earlier success with Saddam Hussein now backfired on the secretary-general, as it became clear that Hussein had not kept his agreement. The American movement toward war in early 2003 became a showdown with the UN when the UN Security Council failed to approve military...

Civil Rights Act (1964)

Civil Rights Act (1964)   Reference library

Benjamin Cawthra

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...civil rights organizations in lobbying the president and Congress. After attempts to mediate the crisis in Alabama , the president and his advisers concluded that without strong federal action, the protests would spread. Some Birmingham blacks had already responded to white terrorism with violence in kind, and the administration sensed that it would be held responsible in the 1964 election. In a nationally televised speech on 11 June 1963 , Kennedy finally called for new legislation. The administration sent its bill to the House Judiciary Committee,...

Modern Wars

Modern Wars  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

...the military had become highly professionalized, and in turn Americans tended to hold the military and military service members in higher regard than they had during just about any other time in American history. By and large, that reputation has held through the global war on terrorism, but no doubt that ongoing conflict will have its own effects on military personnel as the twenty-first century progresses. [ See also War Resisters . ] bibliography Appy, Christian G. Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam . Chapel Hill: University...

Militia Movement, Modern

Militia Movement, Modern   Reference library

D. J. Mulloy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...black president, Barack Obama. This revived and reenergized militia movement has also associated itself with the burgeoning Tea Party movement in the United States . [ See also Anti-Semitism ; Modern America (1980 to Present) ; Racism ; Rural Life and Society ; and Terrorism, Domestic . ] bibliography Chermak, Steven M. Searching for a Demon: The Media Construction of the Militia Movement . Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2002. Mulloy, D. J. American Extremism: History, Politics, and the Militia Movement . London: Routledge, 2004. Southern...

Science Fiction

Science Fiction   Reference library

Marc Oxoby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Rudy Rucker , and Neal Stephenson . Today, science fiction continues to exist as a vibrant and diverse genre. Previous approaches to the genre—from space fantasy to cyberpunk—continue to flourish, even as new writers continue to come into the field with fresh, timely themes—terrorism, ecology, biotechnology and the like—and new aesthetic concerns. [ See also Literature ; and Technology and Culture . ] Bibliography James, Edward . Science Fiction in the 20th Century . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. James, Edward , and Farah Mendlesohn , eds. ...

Atheism

Atheism   Reference library

Nathalie Caron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...such as the best-selling God Delusion ( 2006 ) by the British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins and God Is Not Great: Religion Poisons Everything ( 2006 ) by the British-born columnist Christopher Hitchens. While advancing new concerns such as international religious terrorism, creationism, or the attacks on reproductive rights, these books draw on a past tradition, more particularly on various strands of the European radical Enlightenment that had made its way to colonial America and then the United States. Dealing with religious skepticism—a broader...

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