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Overview

terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

terrorism

terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... the calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or...

terrorism

terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in 168 deaths. Other extremist groups, such as animal rights campaigners, anti-abortionists, and some extreme ecologists, have also used terrorism, justifying it with the familiar ‘state terrorism’ arguments already described. Though there is little evidence that 1990s terrorist groups are as interlinked as those of the 1970s and 1980s, their rise may be due in part to widely published studies of the techniques of terrorism and its effectiveness. Modern crime gangs and drug barons—‘non-state actors’—have also acquired the resources to wage terrorist-type...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

James P. Muldoon Jr.

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...terrorism indicate that a much broader strategic role is emerging for China in the world and may well elevate China to the ranks of the great powers. Background: Terrorism in the 1990s Before September 11 international terrorism was a rather remote concern for China and did not figure prominently in its foreign policy. Its exposure to terrorism was limited, and China had been basically on the sidelines in the fight against international terrorism. Although China had signed and ratified most of the international conventions and treaties against terrorism,...

ecological terrorism

ecological terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...terrorism the deliberate destruction or pollution of an area of the environment as an act of warfare or terrorism. See ...

terrorism, state

terrorism, state   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

..., state the intimidation of citizens by a government by means of state resources such as the police, judiciary, and military, to quell domestic opposition to its...

Terrorism, Domestic

Terrorism, Domestic   Reference library

Catherine McNicol Stock and Laura Koroski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Domestic Domestic terrorism consists of acts of violence perpetrated by an individual or a group against others within the United States , with the purpose of frightening portions of a population or making a political statement. Means of attack can range from shootings to arson, bombings, kidnappings, and sabotage. Usually these acts are extralegal—not officially sanctioned by the state or local governments—although there have been exceptions in the case of white-supremacist violence. Acts of domestic terror have occurred in the United States since...

terrorism, sub-state

terrorism, sub-state   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

..., sub-state the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims by a private group with no support from...

terrorism, state-supported

terrorism, state-supported   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

..., state-supported the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims, undertaken with the logistical, financial, and training support of a...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Terrorism and Counterterrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...organization. In 1998 , the U.S. Department of State designated Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria as state sponsors of terrorism. Sub‐state terrorism refers to acts of terrorism perpetrated by non‐state actors. In considering sub‐state terrorism, one can distinguish between five principal varieties: Social revolutionary terrorism, also known as terrorism of the left, includes those acts perpetrated by groups seeking to overthrow the capitalist economic and social order and was typified by the European “fighting communist...

freedom of the press

freedom of the press   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
303 words

...suppress press freedom. In the 20 th century, *censorship and control of the press is the one thing all totalitarian regimes have had in common; even democratic regimes have yielded to the temptation to introduce censorship in times of war or in the name of the fight against terrorism. Freedom of the press —now applied to all media, including the *World Wide Web —is one of the principles stated in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In countries practising it, its only limits are defined by *libel laws and journalists’ ethical codes. Vincent...

navy

navy   Quick reference

Tyrone G. Martin

The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,236 words

...the US Navy, though once challenged by the fleets of what was the Soviet Union, is now by far the largest in the world and is centred around its twelve Carrier Battle Groups, or Carrier Strike Groups as they are to be called. With the end of the Cold War, and the emergence of terrorism and rogue states, future US Navy strategy, known as ‘Sea Power 21’, provides the way forward for the next twenty years. The nuclear submarine fleet in particular is facing substantial changes. Cuts in the Royal Navy surface fleet, announced in 2004 , mean that for the first...

counterterrorism

counterterrorism n.   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... n. offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism...

ecoterrorism

ecoterrorism n.   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... n. 1 violence carried out to further environmentalist ends. 2 the action of causing deliberate environmental damage in order to further political ends. Another term for ecological terrorism...

security intelligence

security intelligence   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...intelligence intelligence on the identity, capabilities, and intentions of hostile organizations or individuals who are or may be engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion, or terrorism...

FMLN

FMLN   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...also called Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional a Salvadoran political organization formed in 1980 from various splinter groups and with Cuban backing that carried out acts of terrorism in El...

warning

warning   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...n. a communication and acknowledgment of dangers implicit in a wide spectrum of activities by potential opponents, ranging from routine defense measures to substantial increases in readiness and force preparedness and to acts of terrorism or political, economic, or military...

Ku Klux Klan

Ku Klux Klan   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Klux Klan KKK an extremist right-wing secret society in the United States. The Ku Klux Klan was originally founded in the southern states after the Civil War to oppose social change and black emancipation by violence and terrorism. Although disbanded twice, it reemerged in the 1950s and 1960s and continues at a local level. Members disguise themselves in white robes and hoods, and often use a burning cross as a symbol of their organization. Ku Kluxer; Ku Klux Klansman pl....

Federal Emergency Management Administration

Federal Emergency Management Administration   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...separate disaster-related agencies into one body. Since then, the scope of the agency has expanded, and it now responds to hazards associated with nuclear power plants and the transportation of hazardous substances. It also responds to large-scale devastation caused by acts of terrorism, in addition to addressing issues of civil...

Global War On Terror

Global War On Terror   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...the criticisms of the war. More broadly the whole nature of the fight against Islamic extremist terrorism is also subject to ongoing controversy that reflects the problem of trying to combat an unconventional and implacable enemy. Aside from debates over what weight should be given to the various military, policing and intelligence aspects of the campaign there has also been much argument over many of the legal matters surrounding the fight against terrorism. Allegations of US agencies either condoning or conducting the torture of terrorist suspects have...

Anarchism

Anarchism   Reference library

Richard D. Sonn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Steel executive Henry Clay Frick during the 1892 Homestead lockout and the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901 , linked anarchism with terrorism in the minds of most Americans. In 1903 , Congress barred “persons opposed to all organized governments” from entering the United States. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), founded in 1905 , was part of a trend away from terrorism and toward organizing anarchist unions. The IWW enjoyed some success organizing miners and textile workers, but government repression during and after World...

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