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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

James P. Muldoon Jr.

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...terrorism indicate that a much broader strategic role is emerging for China in the world and may well elevate China to the ranks of the great powers. Background: Terrorism in the 1990s Before September 11 international terrorism was a rather remote concern for China and did not figure prominently in its foreign policy. Its exposure to terrorism was limited, and China had been basically on the sidelines in the fight against international terrorism. Although China had signed and ratified most of the international conventions and treaties against terrorism,...

Terrorism, Domestic

Terrorism, Domestic   Reference library

Tom Brister

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,375 words

...one particular feature or cause common to “terrorism.” Many younger Americans, for example, might be surprised to learn that terrorism and terrorists have been of major concern since at least the 1960 s, when disgruntled individuals began to hijack airplanes for the purpose of defecting to Cuba . Terrorism in the 1970 s referred almost exclusively to bombings of prominent landmarks and institutions by radical left-wing youth; in the 1980 s the Ronald Reagan administration initiated an international “war on terrorism” against non-state radicals and their...

Terrorism, Middle East

Terrorism, Middle East   Reference library

Tom Brister

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,110 words

...in the CIA’s War on Terrorism . (New York, 2003). Banks, William C., Mitchel B. Wallerstein, and Renee de Nevers. Combating Terrorism: Strategies and Approaches . (Washington, D.C., 2007). Bohn, Michael K. The Achille Lauro Hijacking: Lessons in the Politics and Prejudices of Terrorism . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Burton, Fred. Ghost: Confessions of a Counterterrorism Agent . (New York, 2009). Davis, Brian L. Qaddafi, Terrorism, and the Origins of the US Attack on Libya . (New York, 1990). Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism . Rev. and expanded ed....

Hirabah

Hirabah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...2007. El Fadl, Khaled Abou . Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law . Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Guirard, James . “ Terrorism: Hirabah Versus Jihad: Rescuing Jihad from the al-Qaeda Blasphemy. ”July 2003. The American-Muslim. http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_hirabah_versus_jihad_rescuing_jihad_from_the_al_qaeda_blasphemy/. Jackson, Sherman A. “ Domestic Terrorism in the Islamic Legal Tradition. ” The Muslim World 91, no. 3–4 (Fall 2001): 293–310. Siddiqui, Khuram M. “The Just War Tradition and Jihad: A...

USA PATRIOT Act

USA PATRIOT Act   Reference library

Amitai Etzioni and Nathan Pippenger

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,258 words

... http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21203.pdf . Electronic Information Privacy Center. “ USA Patriot Act .” http://epic.org/privacy/terrorism/usapatriot/ . Etzioni, Amitai. How Patriotic Is the Patriot Act? Freedom vs. Security in the Age of Terrorism . (New York, 2005). Feingold, Russ. “ Statement of US Senator Russ Feingold on the Anti-Terrorism Bill from the Senate Floor .” (October 25, 2001), http://epic.org/privacy/terrorism/usapatriot/feingold.html . MacDonald, Heather. “ Section 213. Sneak and Peak Search Warrants: A Summary .” Patriot Debates, ...

Singapore

Singapore   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...British and Australian diplomatic buildings in Singapore. During 2002 the Singapore Internal Security Department ( ISD ) arrested more than thirty persons under the Internal Security Act ( ISA ) for involvement in terrorism-related activities. In January 2003 , a white paper, The Jemaah Islamiyah Arrests and the Threat of Terrorism , was released and debated in parliament. In addition to presenting details of the JI network, and profiles of the detainees, the report also sums up the different measures being taken to tighten security and strengthen...

Student Christian Movement, Bangladesh

Student Christian Movement, Bangladesh   Reference library

Prince Sanjay Saha

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...in the movement. More than 45 per cent of the members are women. The Bangladesh SCM undertakes Bible studies, issue-based seminars and workshops, publications, cultural activities, and leadership-building programmes in the church and society, and engages in campaigns against terrorism, religious fundamentalism, and environmental pollution. The Bangladesh SCM is also involved in the struggle for human rights and for women's rights, and provides an ecumenical forum for dialogue. It seeks to establish God's kingdom, while struggling for justice, peace, and unity...

Weinberger, Caspar

Weinberger, Caspar (1917–2006)   Reference library

Roger R. Trask

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Goldwater–Nichols Act Unifies the Pentagon . College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004. Weinberger, Caspar W. , and Gretchen Roberts . In the Arena: A Memoir of the 20th Century . Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2003. Wills, David C. The First War on Terrorism: Counter-terrorism Policy during the Reagan Administration . Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Roger R....

9/11

9/11   Reference library

Michael Cox

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,843 words

...Security Apparatus, American ; Saudi Arabia ; Terrorism, Domestic ; and Terrorism, Middle East . ] Bibliography Ali, Tariq. The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads, and Modernity . (London, 2003). Berger, Peter L. The Longest War: Inside the Enduring Conflict between America and al-Qaeda . (New York, 2011). Calvert, John. Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism . (New York, 2010). English, Richard. Terrorism: How to Respond . (Oxford, 2009). Guelke, Adrian. The New Age of Terrorism and the International Political System . (London,...

Human Rights

Human Rights   Reference library

Ninan Koshy

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...of its accountability to the citizen has substantially reduced civil and political rights. An economic model which does not have in it the dimension of justice reduces economic and social rights. Terrorism, which targets innocent civilians, is a blatant violation of human rights. At the same time, new concepts of security and new laws in the name of fighting terrorism have curtailed human rights in a large number of countries. Although ‘human rights’ may not be a biblical phrase as such, its basic components of freedom, justice, and peace are central biblical...

Terror, War on

Terror, War on   Reference library

Robert S. Singh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Mary , and Robert S. Singh , eds. The Bush Doctrine and the War on Terrorism: Global Responses, Global Consequences . London and New York: Routledge, 2006. A series of essays that examines the origins and implementation of the Bush Doctrine and responses to the challenge of terrorism around the world. Dershowitz, Alan . Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat, Responding to the Challenge . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002. Makes a forceful case that terrorism “works” only when the international community gives in to terrorist demands...

Mozambican National Resistance

Mozambican National Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...opposition to the governing Frelimo Party in Mozambique. See also Political Movements in Africa . Bibliography Minter, William. Apartheid’s Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique . Witwatersrand University Press, 1994. Vines, Alex. Renamo: Terrorism in Mozambique . Centre for Southern African Studies, 1991. Eric...

Toivo ja Toivo, Andimba

Toivo ja Toivo, Andimba (1924–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... to help organize the successor to the OPO, the South West Africa People’s Organization ( SWAPO ), the South African government placed him under house arrest. Despite the arrest, Toivo ja Toivo continued his organizing activities, and consequently was tried and convicted at the Terrorism Trial in 1966 . Sentenced to twenty years of imprisonment on Robben Island, Toivo ja Toivo became a close associate of Nelson Mandela. In 1984 he was released from prison early in what some considered an attempt by South Africa to divide the SWAPO leadership. Instead Toivo ja...

Pentagon, The

Pentagon, The   Reference library

John Whiteclay Chambers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the building. [ See also Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. ; Defense, U.S. Department of ; Rumsfeld, Donald ; September 11th Terrorist Attacks ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Feith, Douglas J. War and Decision: Inside the Pentagon at the Dawn of the War on Terrorism . New York: HarperCollins, 2009. Vogel, Steve . The Pentagon: A History: The Untold Story of the Wartime Race to Build the Pentagon—And to Restore It Sixty Years Later . New York: Random House Digital, 2008. John Whiteclay Chambers II ; revised by Timothy J....

Clark, George Rogers

Clark, George Rogers (1752–1818)   Reference library

John Shy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...slipped away, and Kentucky lapsed into a more passive defense. By age thirty, Clark had lost his health and some of his influence and was drinking too much. A classic Indian hater, he nevertheless consciously imitated what he saw as the Indian leadership style—bluff mixed with terrorism and calibrated kindness, undergirded by absolute fearlessness. Postwar flirtations with Spanish and French ventures in the Mississippi valley further sullied his reputation, and even before his death his significance for regional and American history was being debated. [ See...

Somalia

Somalia   Reference library

Brian J. Hesse

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,482 words

...own terms. [ See also Africa–United States Relations ; Al-Qaeda ; Terrorism, Domestic ; and Terrorism, Middle East . ] Bibliography Hesse, Brian J. “ Lessons in Successful Somali Governance .” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 28, no. 1 (2010): 71–83. Hesse, Brian J. Somalia: State Collapse, Terrorism, and Piracy . (London, 2011). Lewis, Ioan M. Understanding Somalia and Somaliland . (London, 2008). Menkhaus, Ken. Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism . (New York, 2004). Nurhussein, Safy. “ Global Networks, Fragmentation, and...

Faḍlallāh, Muḥammad Ḥusayn

Faḍlallāh, Muḥammad Ḥusayn   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,189 words

...has used in the war against terror may have complicated the situation even more.” Fadlallāh insisted that the roots of terrorism stemmed from U.S. foreign policy in the region. that “[led] to a psychological state that oppose[d] the U.S. administration.” He cited Washington 's support of Arab elites as acentral cause for generating terrorism. Moreover, the occupation of Iraq, he underscored, “increased acts of terrorism against the U.S. and everyone going along with it, including the Iraqis themselves.” Fadlallāh reiterated a widely held belief,...

Internment of Enemy Aliens and Combatants

Internment of Enemy Aliens and Combatants   Reference library

Jonathan Lurie and Christopher McKnight Nichols

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...953–1004. Cole, David . Enemy Aliens: Double Standards and Constitutional Freedoms in the War on Terrorism . New York: New Press, 2005. Grodzins, Martin . Americans Betrayed: Politics and the Japanese Evacuation . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949. Murphy, Paul L. The Constitution in Crisis Times, 1918–1969 . New York: Harper & Row, 1972. Stone, Geoffrey . Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism . New York: W. W. Norton, 2005. Jonathan Lurie ; updated by Christopher McKnight...

Afwerki, Isaias

Afwerki, Isaias (1945–)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of meddling in the border demarcation process following the Eritrean-Ethiopian war. The U.S. State Department accused the Afwerki government of aiding terrorists—specifically, of arming Islamic extremists in Somalia—and threatened to put Eritrea on its list of state sponsors of terrorism. Afwerki denied the charges. See also Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; Asmara, Eritrea . David P. Johnson,...

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