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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

smurfing

smurfing  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Slang for the practice of dividing a large transaction into numerous much smaller transactions, usually for the purpose of laundering money. Because the individual payments are below the threshold at ...
Schelling, Thomas Crombie

Schelling, Thomas Crombie (1921)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
485 words

...In October 1995 he was joint winner (with Robert Aumann ) of the Nobel Prize in Economics. Schelling's academic interests have been very wide-ranging, including military strategy and arms control, energy and environmental policy, climate change, nuclear proliferation, terrorism, organized crime, foreign aid and international trade, conflict and bargaining theory, racial segregation and integration, the military draft, health policy, tobacco and drugs policy, and ethical issues in public policy and in business. His work in economics has focused on...

Bakunin, Mikhail

Bakunin, Mikhail   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
586 words

...struggle, and state ownership of the means of production were the priorities. Bakunin stressed strikes and direct economic struggle outside conventional politics, since politics would lead to the contamination of the proletarian movement through contact with the bourgeoisie. Terrorism was not excluded. Bakunin considered it a law of nature that the birth of the new often came about at the expense of the old, hence his best known dictum, “the urge to destroy is a creative urge.” Bakunin was an active revolutionary. He became involved in the support of the ...

Agnelli Family

Agnelli Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
976 words

...brother Umberto and an experienced manager, Gaudenzio Bono . In the following years, Fiat coped with serious difficulties caused by a rigid and hierarchical company structure, an economy upset by oil crises, and strong conflicts inside the factories, which occasionally led to terrorism. This turbulence was brought on by Fiat itself, which had concentrated too much of its expansion in Turin, leading to social problems in the city. In this plight, Gianni Agnelli revealed himself to be a capable leader. He started a wide organizational decentralization,...

Ulster

Ulster   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,742 words

...state of the Irish Republic. Deindustrialization set in with a vengeance after the first oil crisis from 1973 to 1974 , though living standards in Northern Ireland were shored up by large subventions from the British exchequer. Varying estimates of the economic impact of terrorism exist. While the corrosive effects on industrial production, employment, and investment cannot be disputed, a comparative view provides some perspective. Deindustrialization was by no means unique to Northern Ireland. Other older industrialized regions, from Tyneside or...

Bangladesh

Bangladesh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,219 words

...for direct election of women representatives in local governments. Begum Zia was reelected prime minister after her political coalition won an absolute majority in the election of October 2001 . Her government committed to, among other things, a crackdown on corruption and terrorism, economic recovery, and more transparency in politics and administration. A constitutional change in 1991 shifted executive power of the republic to the prime minister. The president has no executive authority during parliamentary period but is constitutionally authorized to appoint...

Irrigated Farming

Irrigated Farming   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,501 words
Illustration(s):
1

...decisions, and conservation, they may remain dependable for centuries. Poor decisions about dams, global warming, and climate change can bring disaster to many now-arable lands. The politics of water may also result in cooperation or may lead to disputes, warfare, and ongoing terrorism as populations increase and sweet water becomes ever more scarce. Bibliography Bromely, Daniel W. Making the Commons Work . San Francisco, 1992. Hillel, Daniel . Out of the Earth: Civilization and the Life of the Soil . Berkeley, 1992. Hillel, Daniel . Rivers of Eden: The...

Public Goods

Public Goods   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,453 words

...goods group. The voluntary provision model thus has become the paradigm for numerous positive behavioral patterns, including such looming international questions as cooperation among countries in regulating the international economy, controlling pollution, and even fighting terrorism. Mixed and Impure Public Goods Often when a collective good is supplied to a group there can be a modifying factor that qualifies or limits its perfect nonrivalness or perfect nonexcludability. One example is local public goods, such as fire protection and sanitation. Theorists...

Leisure Industry

Leisure Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,231 words
Illustration(s):
1

...J. Durie Travel and Tourist Industries Tourism has become one of the world's major economic activities, second perhaps only to oil, the mainstay of some regional economies in the first world and national economies in the third. Any change in tourism—from civil unrest, terrorism, or natural disasters—can and does have the most serious economic consequences, and the foreign tourist has become an unwitting pawn in political affairs. Some countries are elite destinations, others have become mass destinations; a few both receive and send tourists. In some...

money laundering

money laundering   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...This may be achieved in various ways, notably by paying the illegal cash into a foreign bank and transferring its equivalent to a bank with a good name in a hard-currency area. Another common practice is so-called smurfing . Owing largely to the threat from international terrorism, controls on money laundering have become increasingly...

smurfing

smurfing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...purpose of money laundering . Because the individual payments are below the threshold at which financial institutions are required to report them, the attention of regulatory and law-enforcement agencies can often be avoided in this way. Owing to the threat of international terrorism, however, banks have become increasingly alert to any suspicious pattern of activity. The name alludes to the small identical-looking cartoon characters, the Smurfs. A more formal term is structuring a deposit...

Suspicious Activity Report

Suspicious Activity Report   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...alert them to any customer or client activity that is out of the ordinary and that may be linked to money laundering or terrorist finance. Businesses in financial or other high-value sectors are obliged to supply this information under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and the Terrorism Act 2000 if they have knowledge or suspicion that activity is suspect. To file a report is a defence against a potential money-laundering...

laundering money

laundering money   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...This may be achieved in various ways, notably by paying the illegal cash into a foreign bank and transferring its equivalent to a bank with a good name in a hard-currency area. Another common practice is so-called smurfing . Owing largely to the threat from international terrorism, controls on money laundering have become increasingly...

smurfing

smurfing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...purpose of laundering money . Because the individual payments are below the threshold at which financial institutions are required to report them, the attention of regulatory and law-enforcement agencies can often be avoided in this way. Owing to the threat of international terrorism, however, banks have become increasingly alert to any suspicious pattern of activity. The name alludes to the small identical-looking cartoon characters, the Smurfs. A more formal term is structuring a deposit...

Sedition and Espionage Acts

Sedition and Espionage Acts   Reference library

Scott Henkel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech . New York: Viking, 1987. An account of early attempts by the Supreme Court to protect political speech. Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism . New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2004. Thomas, William H. Unsafe for Democracy: World War I and the U.S. Justice Department's Covert Campaign to Suppress Dissent . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008. Scott Henkel...

Defence Strategy

Defence Strategy   Reference library

Bajpai Kanti

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Indian Parliament, and perhaps emboldened by the tough US response in Afghanistan after the events of 11 September 2001, Prime Minister Vajpayee ordered the mobilization of Indian troops along the entire boundary with Pakistan. India demanded that Pakistan end its support of terrorism and that it hand over various terrorists to New Delhi. Diplomats were withdrawn, and air and other traffic stopped. War seemed imminent as India engaged in what came to be called ‘coercive diplomacy’. In a reprise of 1999, the Western powers led by the US intervened. By October...

Defence Expenditure

Defence Expenditure   Reference library

Tanya Sethi and Reddy C. Rammanohar

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...amounts for replacing and augmenting the defence infrastructure. Two, India’s decision in 1998 to declare itself a nuclear weapon state has led to a large military acquisition and development programme. Three, the army has been used in a major way to fight separatism and terrorism in Kashmir, and paramilitary forces are being expanded to counter other domestic rebellions, both of which have consumed large human and financial resources. How large is India’s spending on defence? In 2010–11, India’s defence spending as officially estimated was placed at Rs...

Human Rights

Human Rights   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...as a universal and inalienable human right. 16 See website: www.indianembassy.org/policy/Human_Rights/vdpa_india.html . 17 Public interest litigation (PIL), in simple words, means litigation filed in the court of law for the protection of public interest such as pollution, terrorism, road safety, and constructional hazards. Public interest litigation is not defined in any statute or in any Act. Although the main and only area of PIL is ‘public interest’, there are various areas where a PIL can be filed. These includes among others: violation of basic human...

Taxation

Taxation   Reference library

W. Elliot Brownlee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
3,810 words

...United States—that is, all taxes as a percentage of national income—was lower than that in any other major industrial nation except Japan. Government expenses had soared, however, owing in part to wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and the strengthening of defenses against domestic terrorism. For the first time since the Mexican War of 1846–1848 , an administration had rallied the nation for war without calling for any financial sacrifice. Bush had also driven up expenditures through the adoption of an expensive prescription-drug program within Medicare, as well as...

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