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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,697 words

...practice, terrorism is always and everywhere in violation of international law. The Rise of Modern Terrorism Terrorism as a systemic malaise of international relations is a much more modern phenomenon, with its roots in a series of political events in the 1960s that focused attention on the idea of structural violence. Some scholars date the origins of modern terrorism even earlier, to the late nineteenth century and the cultivation of new terrorist methods by a fringe of Russian anarchists; but, by comparison, late-twentieth-century terrorism is...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
575 words

...many conceptions of terrorism. In recent years these debates have led to the emergence of ‘critical terrorism studies’. Drawing from the broader field of critical security studies and the Frankfurt School, and seeking distinction from more ‘orthodox’ studies (e.g. scholarship characterized as working within ‘top-down’ dissident-focused definitions of terrorism), critical terrorism studies place explicit increased attention on the role of the state as an arbitrator of insecurity and violence. (See the edited collection Critical Terrorism Studies: A New...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
348 words

... A premeditated act of violence and intimidation directed against civilians and intended to achieve clear political aims. Beyond this simple definition, there is much dispute over what terrorism actually means. Most official or government definitions restrict terrorism to organized non-state actors such as insurgents and revolutionaries. Critical scholars, however, suggest that states also use terrorist methods and tactics. This is certainly true from an historical perspective. Stalin’s Great Terror in 1930s USSR was designed to achieve mass repression,...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,748 words

...the hijacking of planes. In the 1970s the term “international terrorism” began to be used to cover acts of violence committed by political groups outside the country in which they were primarily active. The other term that emerged at the same time, “state terrorism,” referred to encouragement, or alleged encouragement, by states of such acts of violence. Taking terrorism in its second, anti-state, sense, there can be said to be three main phases of its history. There is first a prehistory of terrorism, in the sense of acts which would today be called terrorist....

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,757 words

...; 9/11 ; and Revolution . ] Bibliography Cronin, Audrey Kurth , and James M. Ludes , eds. Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Gearty, Conor , ed. Terrorism . (Aldershot, U.K., 1996). Guelke, Adrian . The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System . (London, 1995). Laqueur, Walter . Terrorism . 2d ed. (New York, 1988). Rubenstein, Richard . Alchemists of Revolution: Terrorism in the Modern World . (New York, 1987). Fred...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,619 words

...as a response to the USA's foreign policy: terrorism is governed by political logic. From this point of view, terrorism directed at the USA and its allies is an example of ‘blowback’—a form of asymmetric warfare. This analysis sees terrorism as a consequence of the foreign policy of the major powers. An opposed interpretation, which became increasingly important as it was embraced by influential neo-conservatives in the USA, understands terrorism as an expression of ‘Muslim rage’. This regards terrorism as a result of what is considered to be Islam's failure...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

David Carlton

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,045 words

... Term with no agreed definition among governments or academic analysts, but almost invariably used in a pejorative sense, most frequently to describe life‐threatening actions perpetrated by politically motivated self‐appointed sub‐state groups. But if such actions are carried out on behalf of a widely approved cause, say the Maquis seeking to destabilize the Government of Vichy France, then the term ‘terrorism’ is usually avoided and something more friendly is substituted. In short, one person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter. Terrorism as...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The use of unauthorized and spectacular violence and intimidation for political purposes. http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~cstpv/ Website of the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political...

terrorism

terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... the calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...strategies, and research approaches related to helping people impacted by terrorism. While the social work literature in the United States included related topics such as crisis intervention, trauma, and work with people affected by natural disasters, only the interdisciplinary and international literature addressed terrorism and mass violence in depth (Quota et al., 1995 ; Weine et al., 2001 ). During the ensuing years an expanded social work literature on terrorism, mass violence, and trauma was published in the United States. Social work with...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton, Joseph Kéchichian, and Minerva Nasser-Eddine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,376 words

...in acts of terrorism. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks of 2001 , research has focused on “religiously inspired” terrorism (e.g., Zalman, 2008 ). Organizationally, this “new terrorism” is decentralized rather than hierarchical. It was rare to have individuals undertake sole acts of terror (as a lone wolf) in “old terrorism”; in the early twenty-first century, however, such is becoming more common. Definition. Despite the decades of research undertaken in terrorism studies, no consensus has been reached on a definition of terrorism ( Schmid and...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,119 words

... Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, and the 2005 Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. In addition to these international treaties, several regional treaties have been adopted to combat terrorism, including the 1971 Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism adopted by the Organization of American States, the 1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the Council of Europe, the 1987 Convention on Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the South Asian Association for Regional...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,772 words

...; Third World ; and USA PATRIOT Act .] Cronin, Audrey Kurth , and James M. Ludes , eds. Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Gearty, Conor , ed. Terrorism . (Aldershot, UK, 1996). Guelke, Adrian . The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System . (London, UK, 1995). Laqueur, Walter . Terrorism . 2d ed. (New York, 1988). Rubenstein, Richard . Alchemists of Revolution: Terrorism in the Modern World . (New York, 1987). Fred Halliday...

terrorism

terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in 168 deaths. Other extremist groups, such as animal rights campaigners, anti-abortionists, and some extreme ecologists, have also used terrorism, justifying it with the familiar ‘state terrorism’ arguments already described. Though there is little evidence that 1990s terrorist groups are as interlinked as those of the 1970s and 1980s, their rise may be due in part to widely published studies of the techniques of terrorism and its effectiveness. Modern crime gangs and drug barons—‘non-state actors’—have also acquired the resources to wage terrorist-type...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,608 words

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

James P. Muldoon Jr.

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...terrorism indicate that a much broader strategic role is emerging for China in the world and may well elevate China to the ranks of the great powers. Background: Terrorism in the 1990s Before September 11 international terrorism was a rather remote concern for China and did not figure prominently in its foreign policy. Its exposure to terrorism was limited, and China had been basically on the sidelines in the fight against international terrorism. Although China had signed and ratified most of the international conventions and treaties against terrorism,...

terrorism

terrorism ((in relation to India))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
126 words

... (in relation to India) The use of purposeful and undiscriminating violence to inculcate fear in order to fulfil particular economic, political, or ideological aims. Currently, the most prominent terrorist groups in India are the indigenous Indian Mujahideen, the Students Islamic Movement of India, Lashkar-e-Toiba (which orchestrated the Mumbai attacks (2008) ), and Jaish-e-Mohammed . They have all carried out multiple bomb attacks across several Indian states since the 1990s. Several of these groups have historically and/or contemporarily been given...

terrorism

terrorism (in relation to China)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
136 words

...terrorism ( in relation to China ) The use of purposeful and undiscriminating violence to inculcate fear in order to fulfil particular political, ideological, or economic aims. Currently, the most prominent terrorist groups in China are those associated with the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region , as well as those from the Tibetan Autonomous Region . There has been a rapid rise in Uyghur-related terrorist incidents in China in the last decade, involving indiscriminate gun, knife, and (suicide) bomb attacks, which have on occasion precipitated mass interethnic...

ecological terrorism

ecological terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...terrorism the deliberate destruction or pollution of an area of the environment as an act of warfare or terrorism. See ...

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