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Overview

terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

biological terrorism

biological terrorism   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...terrorism . Biological terrorism and bioterrorism are terms that came into widespread use in the United States during the 1990s. Both refer to the use of biological agents by nonstate actors to frighten, injure, or kill people (including attacks on crops or livestock). Biological terrorism is distinguished by who terrorists are, what sort of agents they use, and why they use those agents. Biological Agents Biological agents include pathogens (living microorganisms that cause disease) and toxins (nonliving poisons extracted from living...

Smallpox

Smallpox   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,721 words

...on biological weapons. Alibek noted that the smallpox stock was nevertheless moved to Vektor in 1994 . Papers subsequently appearing in the open literature about modified cowpox viruses suggested to him that the weapons programme was on track. With the rise of international terrorism, smallpox and other bioweapons seem apt for attacks on civilian populations aimed at killing as many people as possible. Several countries began stockpiling smallpox vaccine again and vaccinating key personnel. Alibek became president of Advanced Biosystems Inc. under contract...

military, the, And technology

military, the, And technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Oxford University Press, 1962. Van Creveld, Martin . Technology and War: From 2000 b.c. to the Present. New York: Free Press, 1989. Zulaika, Joseba , and William A. Douglas . Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Labels, and Faces of Terrorism . New York: Routledge, 1997. Examines the many different definitions of terrorism and the politics behind them. Chris Hables...

Science Fiction

Science Fiction   Reference library

Marc Oxoby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson. Today, science fiction continues to exist as a vibrant and diverse genre. Previous approaches to the genre—from space fantasy to cyberpunk—continue to flourish, even as new writers continue to come into the field with fresh, timely themes—terrorism, ecology, biotechnology, and the like—and new aesthetic concerns. [ See also Literature and Science ; Popularization of Science ; Sagan, Carl ; Science ; Social Sciences ; and Technology . ] Bibliography James, Edward . Science Fiction in the 20th Century . Oxford: Oxford...

Influenza

Influenza   Reference library

Carol R. Byerly

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and sometimes fatal disease, public support for annual flu vaccination plummeted. The appearance in the 1980s of another deadly disease, HIV/AIDS, as well as the emergence of new diseases and the development of drug resistance in others, renewed interest in epidemics. Global terrorism and destructive natural disasters also raised awareness about how catastrophic events could traumatize societies, but few people worried about influenza. In 1997 scientists under the leadership of Jeffrey Taubenberger at the U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology identified...

energy systems

energy systems   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...relatively cheap to build. Natural gas is not as far along toward depletion as is petroleum, but the midpoint of world reserves probably will be passed some time in the next generation, and certainly by the middle of this century. Conventional energy sources are vulnerable to terrorism. Oil pipelines, tankers, and refineries are typical targets in war. Nuclear reactors are a target for the theft of plutonium, as well as for direct attacks. Even with redundancies built into electrical supply networks, transformers and switching equipment are easy to attack, and...

media and science

media and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...in the 1960s drew journalists' attention to scientists' roles in measuring pollution and suggesting remediation approaches. Along with coverage of the tremendous strides being made in biology and medicine, and continued concern about nuclear proliferation and biological terrorism, the range of science news coverage has expanded steadily in all media. During the 1970s a number of major newspapers established special science sections or features; many of these, such as The New York Times weekly “Science Times” section, continue today. Science grabs the...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...White’s inflammatory history. The Outlook , a liberal religious weekly, welcomed White’s account of the struggle for “the liberty of learning and teaching.” Each chapter, it said, “tells a similar story of province after province won by hard fighting,” with the church using “terrorism and torture and every form of outrage on sensitive and truth-loving natures” to thwart the progress of science. Conservative Christians detested White’s narrative, not only for its scolding tone but also for its failure to acknowledge the support that Christianity had given to...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in the 1970s that were associated with the globalization of trade and the dilution of the independence of the nation state. Issues demanding state intervention—climate change, epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the international traffic in drugs, terrorism—became increasingly global in scope and required collaboration with other states, including those that were relatively small and weak. To lead from a position of interdependence requires a more nuanced exercise of power, a willingness to achieve one’s foreign policy goals by...

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