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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,119 words

... Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, and the 2005 Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. In addition to these international treaties, several regional treaties have been adopted to combat terrorism, including the 1971 Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism adopted by the Organization of American States, the 1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the Council of Europe, the 1987 Convention on Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the South Asian Association for Regional...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,998 words

...or training for terrorism. He issued a twelve-point plan to combat terrorism that would be realized through a combination of the new Terrorism Bill; the new Immigration, Nationality, and Asylum Bill (to deprive nationality and to redefine refugees); new administrative measures (such as memoranda of understanding with recipient countries to guarantee deportees will not be tortured); and some executive intervention in court cases. Of these measures, the Terrorism Bill received the widest attention. Under its provisions on encouraging terrorism and disseminating...

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,557 words

...power. The nation-state was further strengthened because ASEAN was weak and incoherent in its response to terrorism. In turn, the United States became reengaged in the region, as seen in its support for the Philippines and Indonesia. But most importantly for human rights, the war on terrorism allowed states in Southeast Asia to justify repression, and in consequence they faced little criticism from the United States. The global war on terrorism gave these a countries a new opportunity to exploit the security nexus of the state in violating human rights....

P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...to live. In itself, this threat inevitably has serious psychological consequences, especially on the young. Only a complete nuclear disarmament as a prelude to total disarmament can assure the spiritual well-being of mankind. 3. Terrorism is to be condemned whether it includes state terrorism, individual terrorism, or terrorism that justifies itself as part of a struggle for liberation. Movements using terrorist methods annul the missions to which they are dedicated and lose all claims to legitimacy. 4. There can be no freedom without peace and no peace...

Emergency Situations

Emergency Situations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,182 words

...In Israel, the High Court of Justice condemned the use of moderate physical pressure as a form of interrogation. Peruvian authorities eliminated the “faceless-judge” courts for terrorism and treason trials. Terrorism reveals the inadequacy of most existing legislation. The latter was never designed for, and no government ever conceived of a threat similar to the 9/11 attacks. Terrorism seeks to engender fear and chaos, struggling to draw them out into the open to suggest the “illegitimacy” of society. In the wake of drafting antiterrorism statutes, democracies...

Kenneth Roth

Kenneth Roth   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,695 words

...exists regardless of the severity of a security threat. And the only other comparable prohibition that I can think of is the prohibition on attacking innocent civilians in time of war or through terrorism. If you’re going to have a torture warrant, why not create a terrorism warrant? Why not go in and allow terrorists to come forward and make their case for why terrorism should be allowed? Rather than legitimizing torture through judicial warrants, Roth proposes to prosecute the torturers. With respect to Guantánamo, Roth said in January 2007 : “Detaining...

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,367 words

...to deal with the political violence. In essence, there was a permanent emergency in Northern Ireland for roughly thirty years. Terrorism In addition to the human rights violations stemming from the British government, there were also numerous violations by paramilitary forces on both the Catholic and Protestant sides. The IRA, the Ulster Volunteer Force, and the Ulster Defense Association engaged in killings and beatings. Terrorism—political violence that deliberately targets civilians in an attempt to cause fear in the civilian population and that is used to...

Bertrand Ramcharan

Bertrand Ramcharan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,216 words

...Rights Ideas . London: Routledge, 2008. Ramcharan, B. G. “ Future of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. ” The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs 94, no. 378 (2005): 97–111. Ramcharan, B. G. “Internal Conflict Mitigation and Containment of Terrorism: UN Panel of Eminent Persons to Gather Information on the Situation in Algeria.” In Conflict Prevention in Practice: Essays in Honour of James Sutterlin , edited by B. G. Ramcharan . Leiden, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2005. Ramcharan, B. G. “ Peoples’ Rights and...

National Courts

National Courts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,662 words

...of the subsidiary. Other grounds for U.S. litigation. Three modern statutes enacted by the U.S. Congress expanded the range of human rights litigation. The Anti-Terrorism Act enacted in 1990 authorized civil lawsuits for damages caused by criminal acts related to terrorism. The act permitted claims against individuals or organizations accused of funding or otherwise assisting acts of terrorism. The Torture Victim Protection Act, enacted in 1992 and codified as a note to 28 United States Code section 1350 , authorized U.S. citizens to sue for torture or...

Jacobo Timerman

Jacobo Timerman   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,263 words

...abuses during the so-called “dirty war” of 1976 to 1983 . Domestically a polemical figure for his initial support of the military coup of 1976 , Timerman believed that action by the armed forces was the only option to eradicate both the excesses perpetrated by right-wing terrorism and the extreme violence carried out by left-wing guerrilla groups in Argentina. However, he later came to condemn the human rights abuses of the dictatorship and controversially to compare it with the Nazi regime of the 1930s. After his release, he found refuge in Israel, where...

North Africa

North Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,096 words

...despite its dreary record on civil and political freedoms. The crucial question now concerns the future: What will be required to establish a context where the fears of terrorism are abated, authoritarian rule is rejected, and human rights can thrive? [ See also Nongovernmental Organizations: Arab NGOs ; Terrorism ; Torture: International Law ; and United States: War on Terrorism .] Bibliography Aboud, Hichem . La Mafia des généraux (Mafia of the Generals) . Paris: Editions J. C. Lattès, 2002. A very controversial work, and now out of print, linking...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...Act, No. 21 of 1996.” The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , August 23, 1996, Part II. http://www.hrcsl.lk/PFF/HRC%20Act.pdf . Prevention of Terrorism Act. The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , July 20, 1979, No. 48. http://www.tamilnation.org/srilankalaws/79pta.htm . Richardson, John . Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism, and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars . Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Centre for Ethnic Studies, 2005. Rubin, Barnett R. Cycles of Violence: Human Rights in...

Economic Sanctions

Economic Sanctions   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,368 words

...by the new UN Counter-terrorism Committee ( CTC ) created by the resolution. One of the central features of this new counterterrorism sanctions regime was the development of a procedure to list the names of individuals and entities suspected of associating with the above-mentioned groups. UN member states place individuals and entities on the list. By 2008 the names on the “1267 Committee” totaled nearly five hundred, and those names submitted to either the CTC (and later in 1994 via its successor committee, the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate,...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,370 words

...and the United States also provided extensive documentation of unlawful counterterrorist excesses by India including arbitrary detention, disappearances, summary execution, torture, and impunity—human rights violations that generated popular support for armed opposition groups. Terrorism and Jihad From 1998 to 1994 the JKLF waged a military campaign against Indian control of Kashmir that included kidnappings in violation of the 1979 International Convention against the Taking of Hostages and civilian killings. Several hundred thousand Kashmiri Pandits, who...

Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda

Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,228 words

...links to the tragic events of 9/11. [ See also Afghanistan ; Saudi Arabia ; and Terrorism .] Bibliography Chossudovsky, Michel . Who Is Osama Bin Laden? Center for Research on Globalization, Montreal, September 12, 2001. http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO109C.html . Coll, Steve . Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 . New York: Penguin Books, 2004. Combs, Cindy C. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century . 3d ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2003....

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,889 words

...was significant interest, both with respect to the role they might play in dealing with traditional crime such as theft, fraud, and murder, and also with respect to creating an international network to deal with crime such as drug trafficking, transnational crime in general, terrorism, and corruption. Useful manuals were developed in Vienna to aid states in becoming parties to the model treaties, and work was done on model implementing legislation. Cross-fertilization Distinguishing “criminal justice” from “human rights” has always been difficult and...

Elie Wiesel

Elie Wiesel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,932 words

...mass death to an end. Unfortunately, that hope was too optimistic; making memory a shield against evil proved easier said than done. As much as the survivors wanted to testify, people were unwilling or unable to listen and believe, let alone to comprehend. Insofar as racism, terrorism, and suffering continue to have their way, Wiesel acknowledged, reasons for despair still plague the hope that memory can save humanity. Nevertheless, Wiesel affirmed, hope is possible—not without despair but beyond it: remembering the victims rightly brings “the duty to reject...

Film

Film   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
10,059 words

...become acknowledged both locally and globally. Nonetheless, ethical issues may arise when the speaker is either placed in a context of exploitation, or when audience fatigue and disengagement mean that the immediacy of that testimonial goes “unheard.” Terrorism/counterterrorism. Film has responded to terrorism with explorations into the hearts and minds of its perpetrators as well as governmental responses to its threat. Past films that examined the use of terrorist methods and the counterterrorist tactics of torture and inhumane treatment have a new...

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,017 words

...Malhotra, Inder . Indira Gandhi: A Personal and Political Biography . London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1989. The most balanced biography of Indira Gandhi to date. Marwah, Ved . Uncivil Wars: The Pathology of Terrorism in India . New Delhi, India: HarperCollins, 1995. Provides a historical overview of secessionist movements, militancy, and terrorism in India as well as insight into counterstrategies and functioning of the government. Medhi, Kunja . “Protecting Civil and Political Rights in India: Mrs. Gandhi's Emergency and Thereafter.” In Human Rights and...

Peru

Peru   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,999 words

...of higher military authorities. The CNDDHH named 1995 “The Year of Impunity.” On 16 June President Fujimori signed the Amnesty Law into effect; it granted amnesty to all military, police, and civilians implicated in human rights violations committed during the war on terrorism since its inception in May 1980 . In its 1995 Annual Report , the CNDDHH characterized the law as one of the “most negative events in the history of human rights in Peru” (p. 5). On the positive side, the law met with strong opposition among human rights organizations, the...

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