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Overview

terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Patriot Act, The

Patriot Act, The   Reference library

Kam C. Wong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
967 words

...new terrorism (related) crimes, such as bulk cash smuggling and attacking mass transportation systems; (5) increasing penalties on terrorism crime; (6) expanding prohibitions against terrorism instruments, such as biological weapons; (7) lifting the statute of limitations on terrorism crimes; (8) requiring background checks for licenses to transport hazardous materials; (9) establishing more procedures to check money laundering; (10) promoting information sharing and coordination of intelligence efforts; (11) providing federal grants for terrorism...

Anarchism

Anarchism   Reference library

Richard D. Sonn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
447 words

...Steel executive Henry Clay Frick during the 1892 Homestead lockout and the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901 , linked anarchism with terrorism in most Americans’ minds. In 1903 , Congress barred “persons opposed to all organized governments” from entering the United States. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), founded in 1905 , was part of a trend away from terrorism and toward organizing anarchist unions. The IWW enjoyed some success organizing miners and textile workers, but government repression during and after World War...

Terrorist Detention Policy

Terrorist Detention Policy   Reference library

Nathan Alexander Sales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,551 words

...most famously at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba . These detainees are often held for lengthy periods of time and in many cases the government has no plans to charge them with any crime. Three aspects of this detention program deserve further attention: (1) the legal authority to detain terrorism suspects; (2) the sources of and justifications for detention; and (3) the mechanisms by which detainees may challenge the government’s decision to hold them. Legal Authority for Detention.  The Supreme Court has held that the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF),...

Homeland Security, Department of

Homeland Security, Department of   Reference library

Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,042 words

.... President George W. Bush initially opposed the creation of a new department after the terrorist attacks of 2001 , but then the following year announced plans for a new department that included many agencies with little or no responsibility for protecting the nation against terrorism. The department consolidated customs, border, transportation security, and emergency preparation and response functions at the federal government level and issued grants to states and localities. A cabinet-level department was not the government’s first organizational response...

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...Terrorism Act of 2001 . The act dramatically reduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies’ ability to search telephone, email communications, medical, financial, and other records. It also eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States , expanded the secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those in-volving foreign individuals and entities, and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism...

Oklahoma City Bombing

Oklahoma City Bombing   Reference library

Richard Lowitt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
410 words

... Waco , Texas , led by David Koresh. The raid, in which some 80 Branch Davidians perished when fire of undetermined origin destroyed the compound, had infuriated McVeigh as an example of overweening federal power. The Oklahoma City bombing stands as the worst act of domestic terrorism in American history. An active survivors’ association soon took shape, and the Murrah Building site became a major focus of mourning rituals, including thousands of poems, memorabilia, and teddy bears left at the chain-link fence surrounding the ruin. In October 1998 ,...

Kerry, John,

Kerry, John,   Reference library

Maurice T. Cunningham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
827 words

...early and Kerry surged, winning Iowa and New Hampshire and capturing the nomination. Voters seemed disappointed in the performance of President George W. Bush in 2004 , but Kerry was unable to convince them he would be a marked improvement. In the wake of 9/11, terrorism loomed as an important issue, and voters favored Bush over Kerry on that topic. Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, an independent group loosely allied with the Bush campaign, accused Kerry of lying about his record in Vietnam . The attacks hurt his campaign despite the fact...

New Left

New Left   Reference library

Peter B. Levy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
694 words

...New Left in their own crusades of the 1970 s and beyond. Although some scholars present the New Left in a favorable light, as an idealistic movement dedicated to increasing minority rights and ending a disastrous war, others focus more on its excesses, including the defense of terrorism by some and its divisive impact on the Democratic Party and its liberal agenda. Nearly all scholars, however, agree that the New Left played a key role during the 1960 s, leaving a powerful legacy of youthful protest and political change. [ See also Antiwar Movements ; Black...

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education   Reference library

Anders Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,038 words

...pressuring Congress to intervene by enacting a robust 1964 Civil Rights Act demanding desegregation and a subsequent Voting Rights Act in 1965 , restoring the black franchise. By 1968 , campaigns of southern subterfuge dissipated as violence moved north, prompting acts of terrorism and mob rule in cities as disparate as Boston and Denver . Driving northern outrage was busing, a program to achieve racial balance that hinged on transporting public school students long distances to schools where they were otherwise underrepresented. As popular opposition...

Bush, George W.

Bush, George W.   Reference library

Gregory L. Schneider

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,461 words

...group led by Osama bin Laden . Over 3,000 Americans were killed in the attack. Bush reacted swiftly, invading Afghanistan to remove the Taliban government, which had provided cover for al-Qaeda operations, from power. Bush also focused attention on nations that supported terrorism, enunciating the Bush Doctrine, a strategy of preemptive war to ward off and destroy potential threats before they could harm the United States . Most of his focus was on Saddam Hussein ’s Iraq , which, the administration claimed, possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMD)...

Neoconservatism

Neoconservatism   Reference library

John Ehrman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,200 words

... founded the Weekly Standard in 1995 —neoconservatives were only marginal figures at the start of George W. Bush ’s presidency in 2001 . Neoconservatives briefly regained their influence after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 . Viewing the threat of Islamic terrorism through the prism of their Cold War experience, the neoconservatives described a threat similar to that of Soviet expansionism. Believing that expanding democracy could defeat this threat, they advocated a neo-Reaganite response and became the leading proponents of invading ...

Disaster Policy, Federal

Disaster Policy, Federal   Reference library

Andrew F. Coffey and Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,619 words

...break down the silos of national security and civil defense programs in FEMA. After the terrorist attacks of September 2001 , a reorganization grafted FEMA into the newly formed Department of Homeland Security (DHS). FEMA lost its cabinet-level status and renewed its focus on terrorism. In the April 2005 version of National Planning Scenarios issued by the DHS to guide state and local planning, only two of the fifteen scenarios were natural disasters. The DHS took credit for preventing terrorist attacks, but many of the agencies responsible for intelligence...

DEFENSE DEPARTMENT

DEFENSE DEPARTMENT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

... and 2006 . Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld adopted a new strategy in 2006 . By 2006 , coalition casualties averaged only 150 per year. The surge in Iraq has been one of the most impressive military accomplishments in recent years. Al-Qaeda in Iraq ’s campaign of terrorism and intimidation had turned its Sunni base of support against it. The result was the so-called Anbar Awakening in the late summer of 2006 , followed by similar awakening movements across Iraq . From 2003 through 2006 , U.S. military forces, under the leadership of General ...

Federal Government, Executive Branch

Federal Government, Executive Branch   Reference library

David K. Nichols, Richard C. Sawyer, Steven L. Rearden, Pearson Bramblett, Daniel J. Tichenor, David L. Herzberg, Daniel J. Tichenor, Joshua H. Mather, Henry F. Graff, Robert David Johnson, and Jesse Stiller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
12,762 words

...Terrorism Act of 2001 . The act dramatically reduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies’ ability to search telephone, email communications, medical, financial, and other records. It also eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States , expanded the secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those in-volving foreign individuals and entities, and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism...

OTHER DEPARTMENTS

OTHER DEPARTMENTS  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...of Health ; National Park System ; Nuclear Power ; Public Health: An Overview ; Public Health: Surgeon General ; Public Health Service, U.S. ; Regulatory Agencies, Federal ; and Social Security . ] bibliography Alexander, Yonah, and Don Musch, eds. Terrorism and Homeland Security . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004. Bledsoe, W. Craig, and Leslie Rigby. “The Cabinet and Executive Departments.” In Cabinets and Counselors: The President and the Executive Branch , pp. 73–140. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997....

After 1930

After 1930  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. , on 11 September 2001 . The U.S. government began to react almost immediately with new legislation. Public Law 107-56, or the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), passed Congress on 26 October 2001 . The Act included new reasons for denying entry into the United States , gave a broader definition to the concept of terrorist activity, and increased the causes for deporting visitors and immigrants. It also...

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...December stopped a recount in Florida with Bush ahead by just 537 votes. After al-Qaeda operatives launched devastating attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center in New York City on 11 September 2001 , Bush dedicated his presidency to protecting the nation from terrorism attacks. By 2004 , however, the pub-lic was growing disillusioned with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq that Bush had launched after 9/11. Still, Bush narrowly defeated Massachusetts Democratic senator John Kerry in the 2004 election. Bush won every southern...

VOTING BEHAVIOR

VOTING BEHAVIOR  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...and intimidated the most vulnerable black voters. The era highlighted the worst features of Southern politics: racial hatred, race riots, massive corruption, repeated military intervention, fraudulent elections, routine coercion, systematic vote fraud—and even assassination and terrorism from the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Federal troops reduced the level of violence and closed down the KKK, but the Army disliked police and political work; it refused to stuff the ballot boxes, for example. Politics appeared in a deeply pessimistic electorate that combined bitter...

Immigration Law and Policy

Immigration Law and Policy   Reference library

Dirk Hoerder and Carl L. Bankston III

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
4,488 words

...attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. , on 11 September 2001 . The U.S. government began to react almost immediately with new legislation. Public Law 107-56, or the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), passed Congress on 26 October 2001 . The Act included new reasons for denying entry into the United States , gave a broader definition to the concept of terrorist activity, and increased the causes for deporting visitors and immigrants. It also...

Voting

Voting   Reference library

Richard Jensen, Lex Renda, and Richard Jensen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
5,429 words

...and intimidated the most vulnerable black voters. The era highlighted the worst features of Southern politics: racial hatred, race riots, massive corruption, repeated military intervention, fraudulent elections, routine coercion, systematic vote fraud—and even assassination and terrorism from the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Federal troops reduced the level of violence and closed down the KKK, but the Army disliked police and political work; it refused to stuff the ballot boxes, for example. Politics appeared in a deeply pessimistic electorate that combined bitter...

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