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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...optical-scan ballots private-sector employees public-health pandemics punch-card ballots real-estate prices right-wing militia round-the-clock bargaining search-and-rescue operation second-largest army securities-trading unit shell-shocked mothers state-sponsored terrorism stepped-up air campaign stock-crippled Yahoo third-largest oil producer third-quarter loss three-day visit top-executive team tough-girl raiment treaty-member countries U.S.-led campaign venture-backed tech start-ups Washington, D.C.-based airline-industry trade group well-armed...

combat

combat (verb)   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...with the stress on the second syllable (but this is not recommended except in American English), the pronunciation is /kәmˈbat/ and the inflected forms are combatted and combatting (e.g. It is obvious that covert action is only one instrument among many in combatting terrorism—Dædalus , 1987...

analogous

analogous   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
112 words

...is pronounced with a hard g . It should properly be used in contexts involving definite comparisons that justify the notion of analogy ( Terrorism is more analogous to a virulent, malignant illness, a plague that needs to be exposed, contained and then, yes, eradicated with the most precise surgical and other means — The Nation , 2001 ). In practice, however, it does not always manage to keep its distance from the more general word similar . Originally confined largely to technical language, the word has spread rapidly into general usage...

cow

cow   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
111 words

...erupted ). It is intransitive, which means that it cannot be used in a passive construction. Occasionally cower is incorrectly used instead of cow : * Mr Howard is adamant Australia will not be cowered by the attacks, vowing to continue to work to defeat the scourge of terrorism — www.abc.net.au , 2005...

analogous

analogous   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
131 words

...analogous . The g in the final syllable is pronounced with a hard /-ɡ-/ and not, as one hears all too often, /-ʤ-/ . It should properly be used in contexts involving definite comparisons that justify the notion of analogy: Terrorism is more analogous to a virulent, malignant illness, a plague that needs to be exposed, contained and then, yes, eradicated with the most precise surgical and other means — The Nation , 2001 . In practice, however, it does not always manage to keep its distance from the more general word similar . Originally confined...

epicentre

epicentre   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
249 words

...So the question arises: should non-seismologists avoid it at all costs? It depends. In what seems like a legitimate extension of its core meaning, it denotes the central point of something, typically a difficult or unpleasant situation such as epidemics, outbreaks of illness, terrorism, etc., e.g. the two farms treated as the epicentre for the outbreak of the bird flu — Daily Despatch , 2004 . So far, so good: to object to its use in that way seems a trifle pedantic. More debatable, however, is its use to heighten descriptions of creative, cultural or...

instigate

instigate   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
269 words

...properly means ‘to bring about by excitement or persuasion, to foment or provoke’, and usually refers to an antisocial or discreditable action, such as violence, wars, revolts, riots, acts of terrorism, or political coups: …a radical association that…instigated campus riots that succeeded in closing down a number of universities over a period of months in 1969 — New Yorker , 1975 . Because of its similarity of form to institute , it has been increasingly used in the more neutral meaning ‘to start or set up’, with reference to formal activities such...

nom de guerre, nom de plume, pen name, pseudonym

nom de guerre, nom de plume, pen name, pseudonym   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
289 words

...it surely cannot mean ‘pseudonym’ or ‘nom de plume’, such as ‘George Orwell’ for Eric Arthur Blair. In fact, it has a broader range than its French original, is rarely used of writers’ assumed names, and covers names assumed for various dubious reasons such as espionage and terrorism. Printed in italic. ( b ) Nom de plume was formed in English (first recorded in 1850 ) from the three corresponding French words (literally ‘name of pen’); it apparently exists in French but was reimported from English. It is printed in roman type. ( c ) Pen name is a 19c....

discriminating

discriminating   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
337 words

... ( e.g., name-calling ) and teachers ( e.g., singling children out )— Behavior and Social Issues , 2005 . 2 Discriminative is a much less common adjective than the other two. It is occasionally used to refer to behaviour that discriminates undesirably, e.g. An anti-terrorism bill is due in parliament, but most members of parliament have spoken against it, saying it was discriminative against Muslims — News 24 , 2004 . Using it in this way is an unusual choice, since it is mostly used in technical contexts (i) to mean ‘able or serving to...

✳while at the same time

✳while at the same time   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
164 words

...accomplishment.” Mark H. McCormack , What They Don't Teach You at Harvard Business School 194 ( 1984 ). • “He would not be the first national leader to talk peace while at the same time [read while ] encouraging those who persist in terrorism.” Alan Dershowitz , “Arafat Speaks of Peace as He Uses Terrorism,” Buffalo News , 31 Oct. 1994 , at B3. • “The collapse of the Berlin Wall and the Soviet Union offer unparalleled opportunities for democracy worldwide, while, at the same time , [read at a time when ] the level of ethnic and regional...

nowhere near as

nowhere near as   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Lloyd , “Spin Doctors in Overdose,” Times (London), 6 Aug. 1997 , at 21. • “The technology, which is nowhere near as [or not nearly as ] sophisticated as a flux generator bomb, could easily move from law enforcement to the criminal and terrorist population.” “Cyber Terrorism,” Am. Banker , 8 Sept. 1997 , at...

cauldron

cauldron   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
140 words

...is the preferred spelling in AmE and BrE alike—and has been so since about 1900 . Cauldron outnumbers ✳ caldron by a 5-to-1 ratio in AmE print sources—e.g.: • “Lebanon, under the rule of a despotic regime . . . , will continue to be a cauldron of unrest, criminality, terrorism and war.” Daniel Nassif , “Syria's Control of Lebanon Is a Danger to All,” Wash. Times , 15 Aug. 1996 , at A19. • “Chefs have been working for days, preparing cauldrons of a new dish called ‘Boliche Suey,’ to mark the occasion.” Steve Otto , “Big Guava Taken by China!” ...

anniversary

anniversary   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
175 words

...how's he doing at the one-month anniversary of his arrival [read a month after arriving ] in Richmond?” Margaret Edds , “Shucet Steers Troubled Roads Department on a Straight Course,” Virginian-Pilot (Norfolk), 19 May 2002 , at J5. • “The only other week in 2002 when terrorism was the top evening news story came during the six-month anniversary [read remembrance ] of the New York and Washington attacks.” Mark Jurkowitz , “News Media Try to Give Public Fair Warnings,” Boston Globe , 30 May 2002 , at D6. Language-Change Index anniversary denoting...

antiterrorism

antiterrorism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
244 words

... is defensive, involving measures to protect against vulnerability to a terrorist attack. It is also sometimes called “hardening the target.” Counterterrorism , the more frequent term, “includes the full range of offensive measures to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism.” U.S. Army Field Manual FM-78 ( 1992 ). But the distinction is lost outside the military, where the words are used interchangeably. In each of the following examples, they illustrate the vice of inelegant variation : • “The Department of Defense is pouring billions of...

surmise

surmise   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
180 words

... surmise —e.g.: • “On Long Island, the vacuum of knowledge is filled with assumptions and surmisals [read surmises ], the latest being that Iran may have been involved in the bomb explosion aboard TWA 800—that is, if it was a bomb explosion.” Daniel Schorr , “Tripping over Terrorism,” Christian Science Monitor , 9 Aug. 1996 , at 19. • “Just 32 months away from 12 years in office, Democratic Colorado Gov. Roy Romer recently offered a rather ironic surmisal [read surmise ? appraisal ?] of his cumulative effect on our state's Republican Legislature.”...

bivouac

bivouac   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
226 words

...answer to everything quite naturally looks to government for a solution to the Michigan Militia, the Montana Maniacs, the Kansas Kooks, the Idaho Idiots and whatever other nut cases might be out there on permanent fantasy bivouacs [read maneuvers ].” Kevin O’Brien , “Anti-Terrorism Laws to Solve the Wrong Problems,” Plain Dealer (Cleveland), 30 Apr. 1995 , at C1. B. As a Verb. As a verb meaning “to temporarily make camp or take shelter” or “to provide with temporary shelter,” bivouac makes the past tense bivouacked and the present participle ...

incipient

incipient   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
320 words

...an initial stage”; the latter is an obsolete word meaning “unwise, foolish.” But incipient is often misspelled with an -s- —e.g.: • “Mexico lost little time reasserting itself as a no-nonsense nation renowned for dealing in summary justice. Insipient [read Incipient ] terrorism was brutally repressed for a couple of years, then burst forth between 1972 and 1975 .” Bill Waters , “Guatemalan President Cautious,” Ariz. Republic , 4 May 1986 , at C6. • “Allen devised a program for factory workers at Bridgeport Machines to detect the signs and...

inchoate

inchoate   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
462 words

.... A. Meaning and Pronunciation. Inchoate , pronounced /in- koh -it/ in AmE and / in -koh-әt/ in BrE (always three syllables), means “just begun; in the early stages of forming; not fully developed”—e.g.: “American understanding of Islamic terrorism then was still inchoate . Al-Qaida was barely on the screen.” Terry McDermott et al., “Al-Qaida ‘Engineer’ Slips Dragnet,” Newsday (N.Y.), 27 Dec. 2002 , at A42. B. And choate . The prefix is an intensive in -, not a negative or privative in- . So the back-formation choate (=...

duct tape

duct tape   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
612 words

...tape . So spelled—not ✳duck tape , whether that was its original name or not. On 10 February 2003 , the U.S. Department of Homeland Security declared a “level-orange” terrorism alert and advised people to stock up on plastic sheeting and duct tape. Soon after, William Safire of The New York Times firmly declared that ✳duck tape was the original form, dating from World War II when Johnson & Johnson developed the material for the U.S. Army to waterproof ammunition cases. He cited two wartime ads, one for Venetian blinds “in cream with cream tape or...

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