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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Prevention of Terrorism Act

Prevention of Terrorism Act   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of Terrorism Act ( PTA ) . A series of measures rushed through the UK Parliament after the Birmingham pub bombings in 1974 ( see Birmingham Six, the ). Its two main powers were: (1) that of excluding from Britain persons alleged to be involved in Northern Ireland terrorism and (2) that of arresting suspected persons and detaining them for 48 hours, with the possibility of extending detention for a further five days on the authority of the home secretary or the secretary of state for Northern...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...optical-scan ballots private-sector employees public-health pandemics punch-card ballots real-estate prices right-wing militia round-the-clock bargaining search-and-rescue operation second-largest army securities-trading unit shell-shocked mothers state-sponsored terrorism stepped-up air campaign stock-crippled Yahoo third-largest oil producer third-quarter loss three-day visit top-executive team tough-girl raiment treaty-member countries U.S.-led campaign venture-backed tech start-ups Washington, D.C.-based airline-industry trade group well-armed...

Orwell, George

Orwell, George (1903–50)([Lit.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
80 words

...1949 ), the character referred to as *Big Brother is a dictator whose portrait with the caption ‘Big Brother is watching you’ can be found everywhere. > Mentioned in the context of a dictatorial state that is all-powerful and omnipresent (adjective Orwellian ) The threat of terrorism also opens the door for Orwellian surveillance. Reason Magazine ...

reign of terror

reign of terror ([Hist.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
96 words

...Robespierre ( 1758–94 ), ruthlessly executed anyone considered a threat to their regime. Also known as the Terror, it ended with the fall and execution of Robespierre. > A period in which people live in fear of death or violence; the use of organized intimidation or terrorism Remember Senator Joseph McCarthy and the reign of terror of his House Un-American Activities Committee? Deja vu. We are there again! Sunday Business Post ...

Achilles

Achilles ([Gk Myth.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
261 words

...out like Achilles after the death of Patroclus and took some of his feelings out on the opposition. The Times—Tim de Lisle column (2004) Close as Achilles and Patroclus, the two of us. Julian Barnes Talking It Over 1991 Africa is the Achilles' heel in our war against terrorism. Dewayne Wickham USA Today ...

Recruiting sergeant

Recruiting sergeant   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...sergeant A rhetorical term for something calculated to increase support for a particular cause, especially one held to be undesirable (as in ‘These repressive new measures will merely be a recruiting sergeant for terrorism...

Machiavelli, Niccolò

Machiavelli, Niccolò   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Il Principe (‘The Prince’), a treatise on the art of government addressed to Lorenzo de medici , putting forward the view that only a strong and ruthless prince could free Italy from devastation by foreigners. In view of the distracted state of the country, he held that terrorism and deceit were justifiable means of achieving a peaceful and prosperous Italy. Hence the use of his name as an epithet or synonym for an unscrupulous politician, and ‘Machiavellianism’ or ‘Machiavellism’ to denote political deceit and intrigue and the use of unscrupulous...

Assassins

Assassins   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...hashshāsh , ‘hashish eater’) Violent murderers, especially of important political figures. The original Assassins were a sect of Muslim fanatics founded in Persia, c. 1090 , by Hasan ibn-al-Sabbah or Hassan ben Sabbah (better known as the old man of the mountains ). Their terrorism was mainly directed against the seljuk authority. From Persia and Iraq they extended their activities to Syria in the early 12th century. Their power was broken by 1273 through the attacks of the Mongols and the mameluke Sultan Bibars . Their name is derived from their...

Jackal

Jackal   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

.... Jackal, The A journalistic name for the Venezuelan-born assassin Illich Ramirez Sanchez ( b.1949 ), who himself used the nom de guerre Carlos. He worked with various terrorist gangs in different countries. In the 1970s he was involved in various acts of international terrorism in the cause of Palestinian liberation, including the 1972 massacre at Tel Aviv airport and the 1975 kidnapping of oil ministers at the OPEC meeting in Vienna. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1997 . The nickname is drawn from Frederick Forsyth ’s thriller The Day...

Angry

Angry   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Angry Brigade An urban guerrilla organization responsible for various acts of terrorism in Britain in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Some of their number were jailed following a bomb attack on the home of Robert Carr , the Employment secretary, in January 1971 , and they earlier claimed responsibility for machine-gunning the Spanish embassy in London and for planting bombs near a BBC van during the miss world contest. Their name was a loose rendering of French Les Enragés , a radical group of sans-culottes at the time of the French Revolution. Angry...

Guantánamo Bay

Guantánamo Bay   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...criticism with regard to its treatment of detainees, and has been the subject of many allegations of prisoner abuse. Between 2001 and 2005 , one of the UK’s maximum security prisons, Belmarsh, was used to detain a number of prisoners (many of whom were wanted or convicted of terrorism in other countries) without charge or trial, leading to its being called ‘Britain’s Guantánamo...

War

War   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...there is no refuge or no rest. And we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism. Its full name was the ‘Global War on Terror’, abbreviated in political and military circles to GWOT, and its principal overt manifestations were the war in Afghanistan ( 2001 ), to topple the taliban regime and destroy al-qaida bases, and the invasion of Iraq in 2003 . The term has also been used to cover measures to counter particularly Islamist terrorism in other parts of the world, notably India and Pakistan, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, the...

IRA

IRA   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in 1936 , the IRA continued to make occasional raids into Northern Ireland, its aim now being to establish a united Irish republic. After a period of quiescence, violence steadily increased from the mid-1950s. From 1969 to 1994 , when it declared a cease-fire, its acts of terrorism in Northern Ireland, England and elsewhere made a settlement of the Northern Ireland problem increasingly difficult. It subsequently resumed its activities on a sporadic basis, and in 1996 an IRA bomb in London’s docklands killed two and injured 100. The good friday...

Watch

Watch   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...people to be kept under close surveillance. The term dates from the early 1970s, but, particularly in the wake of 9/11, it has come latterly to be applied specifically to a list of suspected terrorists compiled by a government or security service: examples include the Interpol Terrorism Watch List, set up in April 2002 , and the US government’s No Fly List, a list of people not allowed to board a domestic or international flight in the USA. Watch Night 31 December, to see the Old Year out and the New Year in by a religious service. John Wesley ( 1703–91 )...

Lyotard, Jean-François

Lyotard, Jean-François (1924–1998)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,286 words

...of encoder “intention,” as Alphonso Lingis notes ( 1980 , p. 91). While semiotics pursues “intention rather than intensity,” Lyotard proposes an orientation toward “intensity … dissimulated in signs and instances” ( 1993 , p. 63). In keeping with his abhorrence of the “terrorism” of contemporary theory, Lyotard refrains from presenting his alternative to a more pragmatic semiotics as itself in some way a viably utilitarian enterprise. He proposes a semiotics between radical subjectivism and an equally radical objectivism, one that seeks the thrilling...

Nine

Nine   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in each hole of the course. Nineteen Eighty-Four A dystopian novel ( 1949 ) by George Orwell ( 1903–50 ). The book comprises a prophecy of the totalitarian future of mankind, introducing the concept of big brother and portraying a society in which government propaganda and terrorism destroy human awareness of reality. It is generally thought that Orwell named the novel by reversing the last two figures of the year in which it was written, 1948 , but an article by Sally Coniam in the Times Literary Supplement of 31 December 1999 proposed another...

fridge magnet

fridge magnet   Reference library

A Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
159 words

...magnet An advice card on safeguards against terrorism issued by the Australian government after 9/11, with a magnet to attach it to the fridge, and an accompanying advertising slogan ‘Be alert but not alarmed’ 2003 Sydney Morning Herald 6 Jun. 1: The fridge magnet comes into its own [heading to report of a plane crew being warned of a passenger behaving suspiciously] ‘He was talking to himself and it crossed my mind this fellow was the sort John Howard was alerting to be aware of in those fridge magnets.’ 2006 Australian 6 Jul. 16: Sponsors alert but...

flat-footed

flat-footed adj. 1   Reference library

Green's Dictionary of Slang

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
129 words

...unable, exclaimed: I'm an independent, flat-footed man, and am neither for nor against the mill-dam.— Tennessee Newspaper . 1858 Harper's Mag. Sept. 563: His herculean frame, and bold, flat-footed way of saying things, had impressed his neighbours, and he held the rod in terrorism over them. 1898 H. Macfall Wooings of Jezebel Pettyfer 319: Yo' blamed flat-footed ijiot! 1908 N.Y. Eve. Telegram in Fleming Unforgettable Season ( 1981 ) 154: Frank Chance […] is flatfooted against the ‘spit ball’. 1969 ‘ Iceberg Slim ’ Pimp 31: I am the best...

chalker

chalker n. 1   Reference library

Green's Dictionary of Slang

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
155 words

... n. 1 [ chalk v. 1 + ironic use of SE chalk , to draw a line] an Irish thug, the equivalent of a London Mohock n. , who specializes in roaming the streets and slashing the face of any unfortunate victim; thus chalking , carrying out this species of urban terrorism or ‘amusement’ as Grose ( 1785 ) grimly notes it. 1785, 1788, 1796 Grose Classical Dict. of the Vulgar Tongue n.p.: Chalkers , men of wit in Ireland, who in the night amuse themselves, with cutting inoffensive passengers across the face with a knife. They are somewhat like...

winged

winged adj. 2   Reference library

Green's Dictionary of Slang

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
192 words

...Sunshine 289: A wounded duck […] being only ‘winged’ had fluttered into the church. 1892 H. Nisbet Bushranger's Sweetheart 294: I think my horse has got winged. 1916 S.F. Call in Black ( 1926 ) 323: [headline] Jack Black , Ex-Convict, and a Leader in the Reign of Terrorism Directed Against Call employees, winged in Market St. 1944 ‘ F. Bonnamy ’ A Rope of Sand ( 1947 ) 173: You weren't winged, were you? 1961 G.L. Coon Meanwhile, Back at the Front ( 1962 ) 236: This is the third time those bastards winged me. 1981 M. Baker Nam (...

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