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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
106 words

...Terrorism Deliberate use of violence against noncombatants for political ends. Perpetrators can be states, agents of states, or individuals or groups acting independently or in cells. Does not apply to all acts of politically inspired violence. Islamic law condemns the use of violence except to combat injustice, particularly where acts of aggression have occurred, such as people being driven out of their homes, and even then circumscribes the use of violence with careful regulations concerning who may initiate violence, warning prior to the initiation of...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton, Joseph Kéchichian, and Minerva Nasser-Eddine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,376 words

...in acts of terrorism. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks of 2001 , research has focused on “religiously inspired” terrorism (e.g., Zalman, 2008 ). Organizationally, this “new terrorism” is decentralized rather than hierarchical. It was rare to have individuals undertake sole acts of terror (as a lone wolf) in “old terrorism”; in the early twenty-first century, however, such is becoming more common. Definition. Despite the decades of research undertaken in terrorism studies, no consensus has been reached on a definition of terrorism ( Schmid and...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,608 words

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Terrorism is a deliberate, unjustifiable, and random use of violence for political ends against protected persons. Obviously, there is no inextricable connection between Islam, or any other religion, and terrorism. In fact, there is often a great confusion between the phenomenon of political violence and terrorism. The term terrorism applies to a special category of opprobrious acts rather than to all acts of politically inspired violence. Muslims have engaged in terrorism in the modern era, and just as Jews and Christians engaging in terrorism, they...

Harb

Harb  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Warfare not sanctioned by Islamic law.See also Dar al-Harb; Jihad; Terrorism
Osama Bin Laden

Osama Bin Laden  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1957–2011)Leader and founder of the al-Qaeda terrorist network. Born in Saudi Arabia, he inherited a fortune from his father's construction business, which he has used to further his militant ...
Dar al-Islam Movement

Dar al-Islam Movement  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Also known as Darul Islam. Indonesian Islamic insurgent movement that challenged the legitimacy and authority of the newly independent Republic of Indonesia between 1948 and 1962. Led by Sukarmadji ...
People Against Gangsterism and Drugs

People Against Gangsterism and Drugs  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Grassroots South African movement that arose in 1996 to draw attention to runaway drug addiction and rising crime in the “colored” townships and Muslim residential neighborhoods of Cape Town. The ...
Sectarianism

Sectarianism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A narrow‐minded adherence to a particular sect (political, ethnic, or religious), often leading to conflict with those of different sects or possessing different beliefs. Sectarian conflicts are ...
Ānand Mārg

Ānand Mārg  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A Hindu movement founded in 1955 by Ānandamūrti (P. R. Sarkar, 1921–1990). The Ānand Mārg is ascetic and Tantric in orientation. Fully ordained monks and nuns lead celibate lives and wear Indian ...
Groupe Islamique Armé

Groupe Islamique Armé  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) was formed in the early 1980s to challenge the socialist and secular policies of Algeria's ruling elites. Following the military coup d'etat of January 1992, which put a ...
Aḥmad Kasravi

Aḥmad Kasravi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1946)Historian and political thinker. Founder of Azadigan (Freedom) Society. Argued that Iran's backwardness was due to divisions along sectarian lines, rather than foreign intervention or ...
Zaynab Ghazali

Zaynab Ghazali  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1917–2005)Prominent Egyptian writer, teacher of Muslim Brotherhood, and founder of the Muslim Women's Association as an Islamic alternative to the Egyptian Feminist Union. Educated and certified in ...
Taliban

Taliban  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A fundamentalist Muslim movement which in 1996 set up an Islamic state in Afghanistan. The Taliban were overthrown in 2001 by US-led forces and Afghan groups following the terrorist attacks of 11 ...
Chechnya

Chechnya  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The mountainous northern Caucasus zone is the historic homeland for numerous ethnic groups. For centuries potentially dominant neighbors, be they Christian or Muslim, have viewed the northern ...
al-Qaeda

al-Qaeda  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A network of Islamic fundamentalist groups, founded in 1988 and associated with the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. The name comes from Arabic, meaning literally ‘the base’.
Kashmir

Kashmir  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A disputed territory between India and Pakistan. In 1941, 77 percent of the population was Muslim. Three major political forces dominated: the National Conference, which wanted to join India; the ...
Salafi

Salafi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Name (derived from salaf, “pious ancestors”) given to a reform movement led by Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh at the turn of the twentieth century. Emphasized restoration of Islamic ...
Muammar al- Qaddafi

Muammar al- Qaddafi  

(1942–2011)Libyan statesman and colonel, chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1969–77) and president of Libya (1977–2011).Born in Sirte, the son of a nomadic family, Gaddafi received a ...
Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...

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