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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

terrorism

terrorism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
18 words

... The intentional use of violence, particularly in order to sow widespread fear, for political ends. See Sorel...

terrorism

terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
693 words

... . ‘Terrorism’ is a highly emotive, pejorative label, originally applied to the Reign of Terror following the French Revolution, but now most commonly used of political violence as employed by insurgents against a state , unless specifically qualified as ‘state terrorism’. Its definition has proved philosophically elusive, depending, as it does, on whether, and, if so, how, the pejorative force is to be captured definitionally; or, in other words, on whether terrorism is to be viewed as ipso facto unjustifiable, and, if so, why, which evidently...

Muammar al- Qaddafi

Muammar al- Qaddafi  

(1942–2011)Libyan statesman and colonel, chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1969–77) and president of Libya (1977–2011).Born in Sirte, the son of a nomadic family, Gaddafi received a ...
Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...
multiculturalism

multiculturalism  

As a descriptive term, multiculturalism refers to the coexistence of people with many cultural identities in a common state, society, or community. As a prescriptive term, it is associated with ...
anarchism

anarchism  

The doctrine associated with Godwin, Bakunin, Proudhon, and others, that human communities can and should flourish without government. Voluntary cooperation should replace the coercive machinery of ...
violence

violence  

For Greece see hubris; reciprocity (greece). For Rome see vis.
violence, political

violence, political   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
605 words

...lack of adequate resources to defeat a military force. Neither analysis seems adequate to cover what is regularly referred to as terrorism, namely, activity which is regarded by its protagonists as part of a war and by its opponents as common crime (or, perhaps, as a crime against humanity but not, strictly speaking, as a war crime). Characterizing terrorism in these terms we can sensibly ask: When, if ever, is terrorism justified? On some theories of deontological ethics it is never justified, either because it inevitably involves the death of innocents,...

democratic violence

democratic violence   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
165 words

...bring about more democracy. That acts of violence can be considered to be democratic would be important in determining whether they are justified, but neither sufficient nor necessary for it. Dr Kevin Magill J. Hoffman , The Gramscian Challenge (Oxford, 1984). T. Honderich , Terrorism for Humanity: Inquiries in Political Philosophy (London,...

Honderich, Ted

Honderich, Ted (1933– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
224 words

...consciousness is close to what is identified in other theories with its content. With respect to freedom, Honderich is a determinist opposed to both compatibilism and incompatibilism. In political philosophy, he is a socialist who has authored radical reflections on inhumanity, terrorism, conservatism, and thesupposed justifications of punishment. In moral philosophy he is a consequentialist: if we were presented with the power to remove either all the bad consequences or all the bad intentions in the world, we would rightly choose to remove the bad...

Aurobindo, Ghose

Aurobindo, Ghose (1872–1950)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
180 words

...Ghose ( 1872–1950 ). Cambridge educated Indian nationalist, sent to prison for anti-British ‘terrorism’. In prison he had life-transforming mystical experiences. His voluminous English writings on Hindu philosophy and Indian culture deeply influenced understanding of India's spiritual traditions in terms of European thought. He combines traditional elements of the theistic philosophy of Bhagavadgītā , contemporary science, and his own mystical encounter with God, into an original teleological or evolutionary metaphysics which can be summarized as...

civil disobedience

civil disobedience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
364 words

...holds out a reasonable prospect of success without grave costs to society. If the law being protested is of dubious constitutionality, prosecution and punishment of the protesters must take this into account. Prof. Hugo Adam Bedau See also political violence ; rule of law ; terrorism . H. A. Bedau (ed.), Civil Disobedience in Focus (London, 1991). Vinit Haksar , Civil Disobedience, Threats and Offers: Gandhi and Rawls (Delhi, 1986). Peter Singer , Democracy and Disobedience (Oxford,...

Held, Virginia Potter

Held, Virginia Potter (1929–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,240 words

...of Individuals Be Morally Responsible? ” Journal of Philosophy 67 (1970): 471–81. “ Violence, Terrorism, and Moral Inquiry, ” The Monist 67 (1984): 605–26. “Corporations, Persons, and Responsibility,” in Shame, Responsibility, and the Corporation , ed. Hugh Curtler (New York, 1987), pp 159–81. “Non-contractual Society: A Feminist View,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy suppl. 13 (1987): 111–37. “Terrorism, Rights, and Political Goals,” in Violence, Terrorism, and Justice , ed. R. G. Frey and Christopher Morris (Cambridge, UK, 1991), pp. 59–85. Ed., ...

Honderich, Edgar Dawn Ross

Honderich, Edgar Dawn Ross (1933)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,128 words

...conclusion is that ‘terrorism is not by definition wrong … in particular, not all terrorism used by peoples in seeking freedom and power in their living places is wrong’ ( ‘After the Terror: A Book and Further Thoughts’, p. 177 ). Honderich illustrates this point by appeal to the example of Palestinian terrorism against the state of Israel. Given the current situation, he argues, the Palestinians have no other means of acquiring the great goods of freedom and power. The principle of humanity therefore secures them a moral right to terrorism. This conclusion was...

War and Peace

War and Peace   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,715 words

...Teichman, J. , Pacifism and the Just War (Oxford, 1986). Thompson Janna , Taking Responsibility for the Past: Reparation and Historical Injustice (Oxford, 2002). Waldron, Jeremy , ‘ Terrorism and the Uses of Terror ’, The Journal of Ethics , vol.8 (2004), pp.5–35. Wilkins, Burleigh , Terrorism and Collective Responsibility (1992). Wilkinson, Paul , Terrorism and the Liberal State (1977). Constantinos G. Athanasopoulos See also Ancient Philosophy ; Democracy ; Duty ; Ethics ; Humanism ; Liberalism ; Political Philosophy ; Pragmatism ; ...

Said, Edward Wadie

Said, Edward Wadie (1935–2003)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,717 words

...with critics on the right and the left. His books were banned by Arafat’s administration in 1995 , and yet he was also accused of being “Arafat’s man in New York.” Said was accused of being soft on terrorism – for instance, in a series of interviews which were published in a book entitled Culture and Resistance ( 2003 ), he simply stated that terrorism was a weapon of the weak and the oppressed. He was also accused of antiSemitism and being a Nazi. His Columbia University office was ransacked and set on fire, and he received numerous death threats....

unlikely philosophical propositions

unlikely philosophical propositions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,324 words

...of one kind and another than science, literature, economics, history, or narrower specialities . You can think instead that there is a division of labour in thinking about consciousness, the world of which Quantum Theory as interpreted is a theory, time, free will, genes, terrorism, and more. There are scientific and other disasters in those neighbourhoods. Decent philosophy's contribution, as essential as any, is a general logic—a clarity, consistency and completeness. We can't get along without it. There should be a book, too, on why science regularly...

political philosophy, problems of

political philosophy, problems of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,093 words

...; desert , devolution, duty ; equality ; fairness ; justice ; law ; liberty ; loyalty , majority rule, obligation , order, ownership, power ; property , public interest, punishment , representation, rights , slavery, social class, society , sovereignty, State ; terrorism ; toleration ; violence , welfare, well-being . The variety and complexity of these concepts, and the interconnections among them, show that the problems of political philosophy overlap, intersect, and merge with the problems of legal, social, economic, ethical, and...

Kropotkin, Peter Alekseevich

Kropotkin, Peter Alekseevich (1842–1921)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,982 words

...violent and undisciplined revolutionary activity, many anarchist thinkers (including Kropotkin) being liable to arrest by the authorities. There is also no doubt that an association with social anarchy, meaning the simple break-down of social order, and with the espousal of terrorism has given ‘anarchism’, as a term for the idea of a form of socialism that is radically opposed to centralised state power, a bad name. Kropotkin's lifelong work was to combat this. His influence on Gandhi's thinking concerning the regeneration of society from the village up,...

Quinton, Anthony Meredith

Quinton, Anthony Meredith (1925)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,025 words

...the inflicting of suffering is good by virtue of its desirable consequences. Retributivism, he argues, is primarily concerned with the question ‘When can punishment be applied?’ It answers that punishment of the innocent is not punishment at all, but actually judicial error or terrorism. This demonstrates that retributivism is really an account of the meaning of the word ‘punishment’; thus it is not really a moral doctrine but a logical one. Rather it is utilitarianism that is moral, for it asks ‘When ought we to punish?’, i.e. ‘By what criterion?’, which it...

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