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Overview

terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Staël, Germaine Necker de

Staël, Germaine Necker de (1766–1817)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,078 words

...she denies the criticisms and calumnies directed against the queen, whom previously she had hardly admired. Des circonstances actuelles qui peuvent terminer la revolution ( Present Circumstances Which May Lead to an End of the Revolution, 1798–1799 , publ. 1906 ) attacks terrorism, despotism, arbitrary government, is quite prescient about the dangers of military despotism, and calls for political equality, popular sovereignty, the separation of powers, and above all universal public education, essential for any republican government. She believed in the...

Inquisition

Inquisition   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,608 words

...through its investigation of an obscure and stubborn freethinker like Domenico Scandella (alias Menocchio ), finally executed in the Friuli as a relapsed heretic in 1600 , that one can best understand its methods. The Spanish Inquisition had restrained its campaign of terrorism against converted Jews before it ever heard of Luther. It encountered far fewer native Protestants than its Roman counterpart but executed more people for “Lutheranism.” As late as 1558 Inquisitor General Valdés could boast to Paul IV that “the province which by God's grace...

Wars of Religion

Wars of Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,874 words

...change in the structure of municipal government. Despite the committees they had established in each city district, they could not prevent men more moderate than themselves from winning places in elections to the Hôtel de Ville. The leaguer Parlement protested against Sixteen terrorism, and several notables who had been members of the Sixteen at the beginning withdrew from the group, whose leadership devolved upon lesser men of the law. The latter criticized Mayenne's conduct of affairs and even wrote independently to the pope and the king of Spain to request...

1940s

1940s: 1940 - 1949  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...1 rev 20th century Commerce and industry Social and domestic Travel and transport Technology Engineering Australia and Oceania Society Australia 1948 1948 The Muslim Brotherhood carries out acts of terrorism against the Egyptian authorities and British troops Muslim Brotherhood A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 20th century Politics Terrorism and assassination Religion Islam Africa North Africa Egypt 1948 1948 Olivier Messiaen completes Turangaîlila-symphonie , a symphony in ten movements for an orchestra including ondes martenot...

20th century

20th century: 1900 - 1999  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...1922 The Irish Free State takes stringent measures against rebel terrorism, making possession even of a pistol a capital offence Irish Free State The Oxford Companion to Irish History 2 1920s Politics Terrorism and assassination War British Isles Europe Ireland Britain 1922 1922 After Michael Collins is killed in an ambush, William Cosgrave and Kevin O'Higgins emerge as leaders of the Irish Free State Collins, Michael (1890–1922) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 1920s Politics Terrorism and assassination War British Isles Europe Ireland Britain 1922...

1920s

1920s: 1922 - 1929  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...The Irish Free State takes stringent measures against rebel terrorism, making possession even of a pistol a capital offence Irish Free State The Oxford Companion to Irish History 2 20th century Politics Terrorism and assassination War British Isles Europe Ireland Britain 1922 1922 After Michael Collins is killed in an ambush, William Cosgrave and Kevin O'Higgins emerge as leaders of the Irish Free State Collins, Michael (1890–1922) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 20th century Politics Terrorism and assassination War British Isles Europe Ireland Britain...

19th century

19th century: 1800 - 1900  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Science Life sciences Great Britain - from 1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Europe Britain 1811 1811 All but one of 300 Mameluke guests are assassinated during an entertainment by Muhammad Ali in Cairo Mameluke The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable 2 Politics Terrorism and assassination Africa North Africa Egypt 1811 1811 Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro publishes a hypothesis, about the number of molecules in gases, that becomes known as Avogadro's Law Avogadro's law A Dictionary of Physics 6 Science Chemistry Europe Italy 1811 1811 Percy...

1930s

1930s: 1930 - 1939  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Britain - from 1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Europe Britain 1931 1931 Irgun, a new Jewish paramilitary group, is set up by Haganah commanders frustrated by the older organization's policies Irgun A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 20th century Politics Terrorism and assassination Religion Judaism Asia West Asia Palestine and Israel 1931 1931 Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels makes Der Führer a compulsory term for Hitler in the Nazi party Führer The Oxford Companion to World War II 1 20th century Politics Germany 1931 1931 The...

1900s

1900s: 1900 - 1909  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Europe Britain 1900 1900 Humbert I, the king of Italy, is assassinated by an Italian-American anarchist, Gaetano Bresci anarchism A Dictionary of Contemporary World History 3 19th century 20th century Politics Dynasties and royalty Terrorism and assassination Europe Italy c. 1900 1900 The Welsh painter Augustus John becomes Britain's most famous bohemian John, Augustus Edwin (1878–1961) Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 19th century Victorian era Britain 1750-1900 20th century Arts Painting British painting...

1910s

1910s: 1910 - 1919  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Who's Who in the Twentieth Century 1 20th century Science Medicine Austria 1911 1911 The Russian prime minister Pyotr Stolypin is assassinated in a Kiev theatre Stolypin, Pyotr Arkadievich (14 Apr. 1862) A Dictionary of Political Biography 1 rev 20th century Politics Terrorism and assassination Europe Russia 1911 1911 Edward Carson tells a vast crowd in Northern Ireland that they must be ready to defend their Protestant province by force Carson, Edward Henry (9 Feb. 1854) A Dictionary of Political Biography 1 rev 20th century Politics Democracy and...

Victorian era

Victorian era: 1837 - 1901  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...Africa Central Africa East Africa Europe Society Empires 1882 1882 Irish chief secretary Lord Frederick Cavendish and a colleague are assassinated in Phoenix Park in Dublin Invincibles The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature 1 19th century Britain 1750-1900 Politics Terrorism and assassination Great Britain - from 1707 United Kingdom - from 1801 British Isles Europe Ireland Britain 1882 1882 Anti-western riots in Alexandria result in many deaths and provoke a British invasion Arabi Pasha (1839–1911) A Dictionary of World History 2 19th century...

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