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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

Vandalism

Vandalism   Reference library

Morag M. Kersel

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,665 words

...of Herzegovina. Built in 1566 from a design by the Ottoman architect Mimar Hayruddin, it was the largest single stone span in the world. The UNESCO World Heritage Site was a victim of vandalism as part of the ongoing war in the former Yugoslavia. Described as “cultural terrorism,” but also a form of vandalism, the announcement of the Taliban government that it would systematically destroy all statues in Afghanistan resulted in the obliteration of the two ancient, colossal Buddhas of Bamiyan in February of 2001. The edict issued by the Taliban leader...

South America

South America   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Charles Stanish, Tom D. Dillehay, Thomas Pozorski, Shelia Pozorski, Anna Roosevelt, José Proenza Brochado, Francisco S. Noelli, James A. Zeidler, Theresa Lange Topic, Mary Van Buren, and Andrés Zarankin

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,578 words

...authoritarian governments and military dictatorships. In the latter case, archaeology is linked to research done by the EAAF (Argentinean Team of Forensic Archaeology), searching for and excavating the bodies of missing people ( desaparecidos ) kidnapped and murdered by state terrorism. Moreover, recent studies have also focused on clandestine concentration camps or places for prisoners’ execution. All these projects show the social and political commitment that South American historical archaeology is progressively assuming. Another recent trend in South American...

Muammar al- Qaddafi

Muammar al- Qaddafi  

(1942–2011)Libyan statesman and colonel, chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1969–77) and president of Libya (1977–2011).Born in Sirte, the son of a nomadic family, Gaddafi received a ...
Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...
multiculturalism

multiculturalism  

As a descriptive term, multiculturalism refers to the coexistence of people with many cultural identities in a common state, society, or community. As a prescriptive term, it is associated with ...
anarchism

anarchism  

The doctrine associated with Godwin, Bakunin, Proudhon, and others, that human communities can and should flourish without government. Voluntary cooperation should replace the coercive machinery of ...
violence

violence  

For Greece see hubris; reciprocity (greece). For Rome see vis.
Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa

Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa   Reference library

John Giblin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,165 words

...but don’t forget,” and so on. 6 This is especially true for EAC countries and for other African nations that in the last three hundred years or so have experienced slavery, colonization, wars of independence, and post-independence violence, including civil wars, genocides, terrorism, and election-related conflict, all of which have subsequently been constructed as heritage. For example, UNESCO’s World Heritage List (WHL) has received nominations from Tanzania for the Central Slave and Ivory Trade Route and from Rwanda for a selection of genocide massacre...

African Military History and Historiography

African Military History and Historiography   Reference library

Timothy Parsons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,535 words

...pressures forced Ian Smith to accept a power-sharing arrangement with the two main Zimbabwean nationalist factions. The ANC’s Umkhonto we Sizwe, by comparison, was never a significant military force; however, its guerrilla activities, which included bombings and other acts of terrorism, contributed to the isolation that led the apartheid regime to accept majority African rule. Unfortunately, the end of settler colonialism did not bring peace to southern Africa. After the Portuguese retreat from Angola and Mozambique in 1974 the various rival factions...

Intellectual History and Historiography

Intellectual History and Historiography   Reference library

Jonathon L. Earle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,607 words

...the ways in which colonial contingencies impacted the development of imperial capitals, international racial vocabularies, and domestic sexuality. 102 But even then, scholars still know very little about how specific international ideas—including liberalism, rights, power, terrorism, and security—have been impacted by the intellectual innovations of modern Africans. 103 Some of the earliest work in Africa’s global intellectual history was produced by scholars of the African diaspora, pioneered by Paul Gilroy, who argued for a cultural and ideological cosmopolitism...

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