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terrorism

Subject: History

The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally ...

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A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
13 words

... The use or threat of violence for political, religious, or ideological...

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A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The use of unauthorized and spectacular violence and intimidation for political purposes. http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~cstpv/ Website of the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political...

terrorism

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The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... the calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear. Terrorism is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or...

terrorism

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Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
317 words

... Terrorism as a phenomenon has a considerable history, but early terrorism was mainly internal and thereby readily subject to national criminal jurisdiction. For the origins and history of terrorism, see Laquer , A History of Terrorism (rev. ed. 2001 ); Laquer , The New Terrorism ( 1999 ); and Reich , Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind (rev. ed. 1998 ). A generally accepted definition of terrorism has proved elusive for the international community, becoming one of the major obstacles in the elaboration...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
18 words

... The intentional use of violence, particularly in order to sow widespread fear, for political ends. See Sorel...

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
575 words

...many conceptions of terrorism. In recent years these debates have led to the emergence of ‘critical terrorism studies’. Drawing from the broader field of critical security studies and the Frankfurt School, and seeking distinction from more ‘orthodox’ studies (e.g. scholarship characterized as working within ‘top-down’ dissident-focused definitions of terrorism), critical terrorism studies place explicit increased attention on the role of the state as an arbitrator of insecurity and violence. (See the edited collection Critical Terrorism Studies: A New...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
39 words

... Use of violence, sometimes indiscriminately, against persons and property for the nominal purpose of making a political statement. Intending to inspire terror, terrorists act principally in the name of empowering political minorities, and to publicize perceived political...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
262 words

... The use of violent and intimidating acts, especially for political ends. Terrorism has been used most commonly by revolutionary groups, whose objective is the overthrow of a particular state authority, and by nationalist groups seeking national self‐determination. Techniques of terrorism involve bombing and shooting attacks against property and individuals, the assassination of significant persons associated with the established government or security forces, hostage‐taking, and hijacking of aircraft, trains, ships, and buses. The major objectives of...

Terrorism

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Augustus Richard Norton, Joseph Kéchichian, and Minerva Nasser-Eddine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,376 words

...in acts of terrorism. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks of 2001 , research has focused on “religiously inspired” terrorism (e.g., Zalman, 2008 ). Organizationally, this “new terrorism” is decentralized rather than hierarchical. It was rare to have individuals undertake sole acts of terror (as a lone wolf) in “old terrorism”; in the early twenty-first century, however, such is becoming more common. Definition. Despite the decades of research undertaken in terrorism studies, no consensus has been reached on a definition of terrorism ( Schmid and...

terrorism

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
693 words

... . ‘Terrorism’ is a highly emotive, pejorative label, originally applied to the Reign of Terror following the French Revolution, but now most commonly used of political violence as employed by insurgents against a state , unless specifically qualified as ‘state terrorism’. Its definition has proved philosophically elusive, depending, as it does, on whether, and, if so, how, the pejorative force is to be captured definitionally; or, in other words, on whether terrorism is to be viewed as ipso facto unjustifiable, and, if so, why, which evidently...

Terrorism

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Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,119 words

... Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, and the 2005 Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. In addition to these international treaties, several regional treaties have been adopted to combat terrorism, including the 1971 Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism adopted by the Organization of American States, the 1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the Council of Europe, the 1987 Convention on Suppression of Terrorism adopted by the South Asian Association for Regional...

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A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
789 words

...terrorism n. The use or threat of violence for political, religious, or ideological ends. The Terrorism Act 2000 abolished all the previous statutory provisions relating to terrorism, apart from a number of specific provisions that continue to exist under the Northern Ireland (Emergency Provisions) Act 1996, the Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act 1989, and the Criminal Justice (Terrorism and Conspiracy) Act 1998. The Terrorism Act 2000 defines terrorism in section 1 as: • the use or threat of action that involves serious violence against a person or...

terrorism

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
348 words

... A premeditated act of violence and intimidation directed against civilians and intended to achieve clear political aims. Beyond this simple definition, there is much dispute over what terrorism actually means. Most official or government definitions restrict terrorism to organized non-state actors such as insurgents and revolutionaries. Critical scholars, however, suggest that states also use terrorist methods and tactics. This is certainly true from an historical perspective. Stalin’s Great Terror in 1930s USSR was designed to achieve mass repression,...

Terrorism

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The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,099 words

...panic and chaos. The increased concern about catastrophic terrorism illustrates what may be the greatest threat terrorism poses: governmental overreaction that destroys fundamental liberties and violates bedrock values such as privacy. The Soviet Union, after all, had little to fear from terrorism because of its totalitarian control over the population. If terrorism is international, the difficulties in preventing and punishing it are compounded, and new legal issues arise. For instance, when terrorism has been supported by a foreign country, the issue is not...

terrorism

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The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,021 words

...and law is nowadays upon sub‐state violence, it should be realized that state terrorism has been far more powerful and destructive in history. Indeed, the term, ‘terrorism’ was first coined to describe the excesses of French revolutionaries after 1789 . Vastly more people died as a result of the terror tactics of Hitler and Stalin than in any sub‐state campaign. As far as national laws are concerned, the definition of terrorism is set out in the Terrorism Act 2000 . Terrorism involves any from a list of possible actions: serious violence against a person...

Terrorism

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The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,697 words

...practice, terrorism is always and everywhere in violation of international law. The Rise of Modern Terrorism Terrorism as a systemic malaise of international relations is a much more modern phenomenon, with its roots in a series of political events in the 1960s that focused attention on the idea of structural violence. Some scholars date the origins of modern terrorism even earlier, to the late nineteenth century and the cultivation of new terrorist methods by a fringe of Russian anarchists; but, by comparison, late-twentieth-century terrorism is...

Terrorism

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,748 words

...the hijacking of planes. In the 1970s the term “international terrorism” began to be used to cover acts of violence committed by political groups outside the country in which they were primarily active. The other term that emerged at the same time, “state terrorism,” referred to encouragement, or alleged encouragement, by states of such acts of violence. Taking terrorism in its second, anti-state, sense, there can be said to be three main phases of its history. There is first a prehistory of terrorism, in the sense of acts which would today be called terrorist....

Terrorism

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Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,757 words

...; 9/11 ; and Revolution . ] Bibliography Cronin, Audrey Kurth , and James M. Ludes , eds. Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Gearty, Conor , ed. Terrorism . (Aldershot, U.K., 1996). Guelke, Adrian . The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System . (London, 1995). Laqueur, Walter . Terrorism . 2d ed. (New York, 1988). Rubenstein, Richard . Alchemists of Revolution: Terrorism in the Modern World . (New York, 1987). Fred...

Terrorism

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Fred Halliday

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,772 words

...; Third World ; and USA PATRIOT Act .] Cronin, Audrey Kurth , and James M. Ludes , eds. Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy . (Washington, D.C., 2004). Gearty, Conor , ed. Terrorism . (Aldershot, UK, 1996). Guelke, Adrian . The Age of Terrorism and the International Political System . (London, UK, 1995). Laqueur, Walter . Terrorism . 2d ed. (New York, 1988). Rubenstein, Richard . Alchemists of Revolution: Terrorism in the Modern World . (New York, 1987). Fred Halliday...

terrorism

terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
275 words

... . The literature on terrorism is dogged by the apparently insoluble problem of definition. Some commentators evade definitional problems by assuming an ideological consensus among their readers, others simply define terrorism as anti‐state activity. Other approaches attempt to include state activities in the definition, by defining terrorism as involving the attempt to coerce target populations through the use of actions designed to induce extreme fear. Such general definitions, while focusing upon acts carried out against unarmed and innocent...

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