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International Organization and Crime, and Corruption

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption   Reference library

Frank G. Madsen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,475 words
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1

...who hold senior executive, judicial, and legislative positions.” The G8 emphasize the enhanced due diligence requirements with regard to “politically exposed persons.” The term corruption comprises a series of overlapping phenomena; the most tragic of these is kleptocracy . “Kleptocracy is corruption of high-level public officials, who use their positions systematically to line their pockets directly or indirectly with funds from the public purse” ( Reuter and Truman, 2004 :149). Although kleptocrats have emerged on all continents from Haiti and the...

Civil Wars, Scientific Study of

Civil Wars, Scientific Study of   Reference library

Idean Salehyan and Clayton L. Thyne

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,487 words

...Contemporary Third World. Politics and Society (17), 489–507. Greig, J.M. , and Regan, P.M. 2008. When Do They Say Yes? An Analysis of the Willingness to Offer and Accept Mediation in Civil Wars. International Studies Quarterly (52) (4), 759–81. Grossman, H. 1999. Kleptocracy and Revolutions. Oxford Economic Papers (51), 267–83. Guha-Sapir, D. , and Gijsbert van Panhuis, W. 2002. Armed Conflict and Public Health . Brussels: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED). Gurr, T.R. 1970. Why Men Rebel . Princeton, NJ: Princeton...

Crime: The Illicit Global Political Economy

Crime: The Illicit Global Political Economy   Reference library

John T. Picarelli

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,951 words

...where a transnational criminal group ends and the state government begins. Reasons for such mergers include weak or nascent state institutions, authoritarian forms of governance and even certain cultural characteristics ( Godson 2003 ). Others describe the situation as a “kleptocracy” or shadow state wherein business elites and political leaders merge and then sell the trappings of sovereignty that the state controls (e.g. trade regulation or passport issuance) to foreign firms and transnational criminals ( Galeotti 1998 ; Perl 1998 ; Reno 1998 ; ...

Energy, Security, and Foreign Policy

Energy, Security, and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Özgür Özdamar

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,231 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and respect” for the producer countries. They argue that US policy makers avoid criticizing producer governments for fear of threatening their relations with them and therefore put the US’s energy security at risk. The authors claim that the US has been too silent on Africa’s kleptocracy, Russia’s trespasses on the rule of law, and repressive, undemocratic governments in the Middle East. Their suggestion is to criticize the producing countries in the international arena and penalize them if necessary. This aspect of foreign policy most concerns the Middle East....

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