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kleptocracy

kleptocracy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
40 words

...kleptocracy Literally ‘rule by thieves’. A pejorative term for a government engaged in corruption and embezzlement to increase the personal wealth of government officials. Kleptocracy is characterized by widespread misappropriation of public funds for the benefit of the ruling...

Great Lakes Region

Great Lakes Region   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,981 words

...tutelage to build up his own popularity as a national leader, he became dispensable. From the perspective of political economy, the underlying causes of the regional war that began in August 1998 were the decay of the Congolese state under the weight of Mobutu's thirty-year kleptocracy, and the longstanding envy of external powers, including poor neighboring states like Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, vis-à-vis Congo's rich array of natural resources. The invasion of the Congo by these Lilliputian states would have been unthinkable under normal circumstances,...

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Congo, Democratic Republic of the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,166 words

...Mobutu regime. Through frequent cabinet reshuffling and constant change of high-ranking officials, Mobutu gave as many people as possible the chance to enrich themselves, thereby developing a stake in the survival of the regime. A corrupt and degenerate ruling group, Mobutu's kleptocracy blocked economic growth and development by depriving the state of those essential means and resources required for satisfying the basic needs of the population. By privatizing the state itself, they succeeded not only in abolishing the distinction between public and personal...

United States Foreign Relations: Africa

United States Foreign Relations: Africa   Reference library

J. Peter Pham

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,962 words

...studied at one point by a NATO committee during the waning days of the Eisenhower administration. In the end, America backed Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, a military man who seized power in 1965 with clandestine US support. While Mobutu's rule was increasingly characterized by kleptocracy and an extravagant cult of personality, Washington policymakers nonetheless counted upon him to not only keep the Soviet influence at bay in his own country, but also to aid groups fighting Marxist regimes elsewhere on the continent. For its part, after an initial foray into West...

Democratic Republic of Congo

Democratic Republic of Congo   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,839 words

...were subjected to extrajudicial executions, internal banishment, disappearances, long-term detention without trial, torture, and other human rights violations. Moreover, Mobutu institutionalized corruption to the extent that most observers agreed his regime became a real kleptocracy—that is, a government headed by thieves. Another of Mobutu's strategies was a policy of “divide and rule”: to play the ethnic card in the Kivu area, siding with one group at the expense of the other, according to circumstances and opportunity. In 1972 he promulgated the...

Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan Milošević   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,375 words

...community itself. All these conflicts served well his political interests, as people living under conditions of conflict or war tend to rally around their governments, and politicians are forced to compete over the issue of patriotism. Milošević's regime functioned as a kleptocracy, in which his family grew steadily richer at the expense of the country's citizens and in which loyalty on the part of high-ranking functionaries was highly rewarded. According to Louis Sell, during Milošević's thirteen years of rule more than $100 million, an amount possibly...

Transitions to Democracy and Rule of Law

Transitions to Democracy and Rule of Law   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,147 words

...development and encourage corruption and formal sector inefficiency—which in turn involve further human rights violations. There is general agreement that the economic situation in Africa has favored those leaders (and their cronies) who persistently violate human rights. Kleptocracies—which loot national resources and monopolize opportunities—worsen societal schisms and deny some or most of the population access to public goods and services and larger shares of national wealth. Human rights violations make fledgling democratization processes more volatile...

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Congo, Democratic Republic of the   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,258 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Wemba, and Abeti Masiniki, and bands such as O.K. Jazz, and Docteur Nico et l’Orchestre African Fiesta. Mobutu also acted as a patron to some of the Zairean musicians and sometimes invited them to play at his palaces. By the early 1980s Mobutu’s government was notorious as a kleptocracy in which public funds were used for private gain, especially for the private gain of the president himself, who diverted vast sums of revenue into his personal bank accounts. Meanwhile, the Zairean economy and infrastructure deteriorated. Mobutu managed to maintain his...

Africa–United States Relations

Africa–United States Relations   Reference library

J. Peter Pham

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,961 words

...studied at one point by a NATO committee during the waning days of the Eisenhower administration. In the end, America backed Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, a military man who seized power in 1965 with clandestine US support. While Mobutu’s rule was increasingly characterized by kleptocracy and an extravagant cult of personality, Washington policymakers nonetheless counted upon him to not only keep the Soviet influence at bay in his own country, but also to aid groups fighting Marxist regimes elsewhere on the continent. For its part, after an initial foray into...

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption

International Organization and Crime, and Corruption   Reference library

Frank G. Madsen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,475 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who hold senior executive, judicial, and legislative positions.” The G8 emphasize the enhanced due diligence requirements with regard to “politically exposed persons.” The term corruption comprises a series of overlapping phenomena; the most tragic of these is kleptocracy . “Kleptocracy is corruption of high-level public officials, who use their positions systematically to line their pockets directly or indirectly with funds from the public purse” ( Reuter and Truman, 2004 :149). Although kleptocrats have emerged on all continents from Haiti and the...

Right to Development

Right to Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,752 words

...unfortunate reality of high levels of corruption that exist in many less developed countries. If the right to development means that richer states should redistribute wealth to poorer states, why should the former do this when in many poor countries the government is often a kleptocracy that steals from the public treasury to line the pockets of the ruling group? In fact, some of the more unsavory governments in the less developed countries have used the right to development to justify repressive policies. Civil and political rights are put on hold, while the...

Civil Wars, Scientific Study of

Civil Wars, Scientific Study of   Reference library

Idean Salehyan and Clayton L. Thyne

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,487 words

...Contemporary Third World. Politics and Society (17), 489–507. Greig, J.M. , and Regan, P.M. 2008. When Do They Say Yes? An Analysis of the Willingness to Offer and Accept Mediation in Civil Wars. International Studies Quarterly (52) (4), 759–81. Grossman, H. 1999. Kleptocracy and Revolutions. Oxford Economic Papers (51), 267–83. Guha-Sapir, D. , and Gijsbert van Panhuis, W. 2002. Armed Conflict and Public Health . Brussels: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED). Gurr, T.R. 1970. Why Men Rebel . Princeton, NJ: Princeton...

The Selectorate Theory and International Politics

The Selectorate Theory and International Politics   Reference library

Randolph M. Siverson and Bruce Bueno de Mesquita

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,141 words

...policy concessions and compliance from vanquished states), while in small coalition systems (like many autocracies) leaders primarily pursue a variety of private, material goods, such as money, land, monopolies, and rents; in the extreme, this is a pattern often referred to as kleptocracy. The ST’s application to international relations is not limited to conflict and war, although both are key elements in what transpires between states, but, as we will discuss, has application to international trade ( Milner & Kubota, 2005 ; Wruuck, 2013 ), environmental policy...

Crime: The Illicit Global Political Economy

Crime: The Illicit Global Political Economy   Reference library

John T. Picarelli

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,951 words

...where a transnational criminal group ends and the state government begins. Reasons for such mergers include weak or nascent state institutions, authoritarian forms of governance and even certain cultural characteristics ( Godson 2003 ). Others describe the situation as a “kleptocracy” or shadow state wherein business elites and political leaders merge and then sell the trappings of sovereignty that the state controls (e.g. trade regulation or passport issuance) to foreign firms and transnational criminals ( Galeotti 1998 ; Perl 1998 ; Reno 1998 ; ...

Energy, Security, and Foreign Policy

Energy, Security, and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Özgür Özdamar

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,231 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and respect” for the producer countries. They argue that US policy makers avoid criticizing producer governments for fear of threatening their relations with them and therefore put the US’s energy security at risk. The authors claim that the US has been too silent on Africa’s kleptocracy, Russia’s trespasses on the rule of law, and repressive, undemocratic governments in the Middle East. Their suggestion is to criticize the producing countries in the international arena and penalize them if necessary. This aspect of foreign policy most concerns the Middle East....

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