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Duvalierism

Duvalierism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,176 words

...was announced that the next decade of Duvalierism would be dedicated to gradual democratization. The cosmetic reforms that ensued convinced no one that the regime was serious about liberalization, and corruption eventually became so endemic that the regime was described as a kleptocracy in 1982 . The Reagan administration restored the old U.S. support for the Duvalierist dictatorship because of Cold War politics. Duvalier’s fiercely anti-Communist position endeared him to a Republican administration that feared the spread of communism and Cuban subversion in...

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Congo, Democratic Republic of the   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,258 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Wemba, and Abeti Masiniki, and bands such as O.K. Jazz, and Docteur Nico et l’Orchestre African Fiesta. Mobutu also acted as a patron to some of the Zairean musicians and sometimes invited them to play at his palaces. By the early 1980s Mobutu’s government was notorious as a kleptocracy in which public funds were used for private gain, especially for the private gain of the president himself, who diverted vast sums of revenue into his personal bank accounts. Meanwhile, the Zairean economy and infrastructure deteriorated. Mobutu managed to maintain his...

Historiography

Historiography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
7,361 words

...publications. The issue of French Africa provoked fierce arguments about the special relationship between French authorities, the French army, and French firms on one side and colonial governments on the other (Verschave), as well as discussions of corruption, Freemasonry, kleptocracies, and dictatorships. The invisible ceiling on actual development caused arguments about the efficiency of French (and European) financial aid, about the state of dependence that it could impose, and about new forms of economic imperialism (driven by mining, oil, and wholesale...

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