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Curie, Pierre

Curie, Pierre   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
513 words

..., Pierre (1859–1906) French physicist Pierre Curie was the son of a Paris physician. He was educated at the Sorbonne where he became an assistant in 1878 . In 1882 he was made laboratory chief at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry where he remained until he was appointed professor of physics at the Sorbonne in 1904 . In 1895 he married Marie Skłodowska , with whom he conducted research into the radioactivity of radium and with whom he shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903 . His scientific career falls naturally into two periods,...

Curie, Pierre

Curie, Pierre (1859–1906)   Reference library

The New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., Pierre ( 1859–1906 ) French physicist , husband of Marie Curie . * curie Curie's law Curie temperature (or point ) Symbol: T C Curie–Weiss law (en dash)...

Curie point

Curie point   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
37 words

...Curie point ( Curie temperature ) The temperature at which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes only paramagnetic. For iron the Curie point is 760°C and for nickel 356°C. It is named after Pierre Curie...

Curie point

Curie point   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
38 words

... point ( Curie temperature ) The temperature at which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes only paramagnetic. For iron the Curie point is 760°C and for nickel 356°C. It is named after Pierre Curie...

Curie’s law

Curie’s law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
89 words

...Curie’s law The susceptibility ( χ ‎) of a paramagnetic substance is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature ( T ), i.e. χ ‎= C / T , where C is the Curie constant. A modification of this law, the Curie–Weiss law , is more generally applicable. It states that χ ‎= C /( T − θ ‎), where θ ‎ is the Weiss constant, a characteristic of the material. The law was first proposed by Pierre Curie in 1895 and modified by another French physicist, Pierre-Ernest Weiss ( 1865–1940 ), in...

Curie–Weiss law

Curie–Weiss law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...–Weiss law A law that describes the magnetic susceptibility ( X ) of a ferromagnet ( see ferromagnetism ) at temperatures above the Curie temperature . X = C /( T − θ ‎ ) where C is a constant for each material, T is the temperature in kelvins, and θ ‎ is the Curie temperature in kelvins. The law was formulated by the French physicists Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) and Pierre-Ernest Weiss ( 1865–1940...

Curie’s law

Curie’s law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
89 words

...’s law The susceptibility ( χ ‎) of a paramagnetic substance is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature ( T ), i.e. χ ‎ = C / T , where C is the Curie constant. A modification of this law, the Curie-Weiss law , is more generally applicable. It states that χ ‎ = C /( T – θ ‎), where θ ‎ is the Weiss constant, a characteristic of the material. The law was first proposed by Pierre Curie in 1895 and modified by another French physicist, Pierre-Ernest Weiss ( 1865–1940 ), in 1907...

Joliot-Curie, Irène

Joliot-Curie, Irène (1897–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
63 words

...Joliot-Curie, Irène ( 1897–1956 ) French physicist , daughter of Marie and Pierre Curie , who was educated by her mother and her scientist associates. In 1921 she began work at the Radium Institute, becoming director in 1946 . In 1926 she married Frédéric Joliot ( 1900–58 ). They shared the 1935 Nobel Prize for chemistry for their discovery of artificial radioactivity the previous...

Joliot-Curie, Irène

Joliot-Curie, Irène (1897–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
63 words

...Curie, Irène ( 1897–1956 ) French physicist , daughter of Marie and Pierre Curie , who was educated by her mother and her scientist associates. In 1921 she began work at the Radium Institute, becoming director in 1946 . In 1926 she married Frédéric Joliot ( 1900–58 ). They shared the 1935 Nobel Prize for chemistry for their discovery of artificial radioactivity the previous...

Joliot-Curie, Irène

Joliot-Curie, Irène   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
248 words

...Curie, Irène (1897–1956) French physicist Irène Curie was born in Paris, the daughter of Pierre Curie and Marie Curie , the discoverers of radium. She received little formal schooling, attending instead informal classes where she was taught physics by her mother, mathematics by Paul Langevin , and chemistry by Jean Baptiste Perrin . She later attended the Sorbonne although she first served as a radiologist at the front during World War I. In 1921 she began work at her mother's Radium Institute with which she maintained her connection for the rest...

curie

curie   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
92 words

... abbr. : Ci (formerly C); a non‐SI unit of (radio)activity or of radioactive material. Originally ( 1910 ) it was defined as the quantity of radon in radioactive equilibrium with one gram of radium. Latterly ( 1968 ) it was defined as a unit of activity equal to 3.7 × 10 10 disintegrations per second or, less correctly, as the quantity of any radioactive material having such activity. Hence, 1 Ci = 3.7 × 10 10 becquerels . [After Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ), French physicist and chemist (not after Marie Curie as sometimes...

Joliot-Curie, Irène

Joliot-Curie, Irène (1897–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Joliot-Curie, Irène ( 1897–1956 ) A French scientist and daughter of Marie and Pierre Curie. She gained her doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1920 having first served as a nurse during the the First World War. She became Doctor of Science in 1925, having presented a thesis on the alpha rays of polonium. She is noted for her work on natural and artificial radioactivity working together with her husband Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie ( 1900–58 ). She shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with him in 1935 in recognition of the synthesis of new radioactive...

Curie, Marie

Curie, Marie (1867–1934)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
96 words

..., Marie ( Marya Sklodowska ; 1867–1934 ) Polish -born French chemist , who went to Paris in 1891 . She married the physicist Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) in 1895 and soon began work on seeking radioactive elements other than uranium in pitchblende (to account for its unexpectedly high radioactivity). By 1898 she had discovered radium and polonium , although it took her four years to purify them. In 1903 the Curies shared the Nobel Prize for physics with Henri Becquerel , who had discovered radioactivity. In 1911 Marie Curie was awarded...

Curie, Marie

Curie, Marie (1867–1934)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
117 words

..., Marie ( 1867–1934 ) Polish scientist who specialized in work on radiation . Marie and her husband Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) (who specialized in the electrical and magnetic properties of crystals) worked together on a series of radiation experiments. In 1898 , they discovered radium and polonium . In 1903 , they shared the Nobel Prize in physics with A. H. Becquerel . In 1911 , Marie became the first person to be awarded a second Nobel Prize (this time for chemistry), for her work on radium and its compounds. She died of leukaemia caused by...

Curie, Marie

Curie, Marie (1867–1934)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
106 words

..., Marie , née Sklodowska ( 1867–1934 ). Physicist . Born in Poland, she was one of the first scientists to investigate the phenomenon which she named radio‐activity. She and her fellow physicist, Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ), whom she married, discovered the elements polonium and radium ( 1898 ), and gave their name to a measure of radioactivity. She became the first woman professor at the Sorbonne , against considerable odds, and a champion and role model for higher education opportunities for women. Her pioneering work gained her Nobel Prizes for...

Curie, Marie

Curie, Marie (1867–1934)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
116 words

...Curie, Marie ( Marya Sklodowska ; 1867–1934 ) Polish -born French chemist , who went to Paris in 1891 . She married the physicist Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) in 1895 and soon began work on seeking radioactive elements other than uranium in pitchblende (to account for its unexpectedly high radioactivity). By 1898 she had discovered radium and polonium , although it took her four years to purify them. In 1903 the Curies shared the Nobel Prize for physics with Henri Becquerel , who had discovered radioactivity. In 1911 she was awarded the...

Joliot-Curie, Irène

Joliot-Curie, Irène (1897–1956)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
214 words

...Curie, Irène ( 1897–1956 ) French physicist who, in collaboration with her husband, Frédéric Joliot-Curie ( 1900–58 ), discovered artificial radioactivity. For this they were awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. The daughter of the early Nobel laureates Pierre and Marie Curie , Irène Curie obtained a doctorate from the Sorbonne in 1925 and married her mother's research assistant, Frédéric Joliot , a year later. Together they worked under Marie Curie at the Radium Institute in Paris – Irène eventually becoming director of the institute...

Becquerel, Antoine Henri

Becquerel, Antoine Henri (1852–1908)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
69 words

.... He was professor of physics at the Paris Museum of Natural History, and later at the Ecole Polytechnique. In 1896 he discovered radioactivity in uranium salts, for which he shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics with Pierre and Marie Curie . The becquerel standard unit for measuring radioactivity, which has replaced the curie , was named after him. See also beta...

Curie symmetry principle

Curie symmetry principle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... symmetry principle A principle formulated in 1894 by Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) stating that: ( a ) If certain causes yield known effects, the symmetry elements of the causes should be contained in the effects generated; ( b ) If there is an absence of symmetry elements in the known effects, that absence should be contained in the causes which generated those effects; ( c ) The effects may have higher symmetry than the causes which generated them, therefore the converse of ( a ) and ( b ) is not true. See also sander’s symmetry principle...

piezoelectricity

piezoelectricity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...charge induced by a flow of electrons when pressure is applied at the ends of a polar axis of a crystal which lacks a centre of symmetry ( see crystal symmetry ) and which has different crystal forms at opposite ends. This property was first detected in 1881 by Pierre and Jacques Curie...

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