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Curie, Pierre

Curie, Pierre   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
513 words

..., Pierre (1859–1906) French physicist Pierre Curie was the son of a Paris physician. He was educated at the Sorbonne where he became an assistant in 1878 . In 1882 he was made laboratory chief at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry where he remained until he was appointed professor of physics at the Sorbonne in 1904 . In 1895 he married Marie Skłodowska , with whom he conducted research into the radioactivity of radium and with whom he shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903 . His scientific career falls naturally into two periods,...

Irène Joliot-Curie

Irène Joliot-Curie  

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(1897–1956)French physicist who, in collaboration with her husband, Frédéric Joliot-Curie (1900–58), discovered artificial radioactivity. For this they were awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize for ...
André Louis Debierne

André Louis Debierne  

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(1874–1949) French chemistBorn in Paris, France, Debierne was educated at the Ecole de Physique et Chemie. After graduation he worked at the Sorbonne and as an assistant to Pierre and Marie Curie, ...
Marie Curie

Marie Curie  

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(1867–1934)Polish-born French chemist. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first person to win two Nobel Prizes. She shared the 1903 prize with her husband, the physicist Pierre ...
Antoine Henri Becquerel

Antoine Henri Becquerel  

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(1852–1908) French physicist.His early researches were in optics; then, in 1896, he accidentally discovered radioactivity in fluorescent salts of uranium. Three years later he showed that it consists ...
Curie's law

Curie's law  

The susceptibility (χ) of a paramagnetic substance is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature (T), i.e. χ = C/T, where C is the Curie constant. A modification of this law, the Curie-Weiss law, ...
Curie point

Curie point  

The temperature at which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes only paramagnetic. For iron the Curie point is 760°C and for nickel 356°C. It is named after Pierre Curie.
piezoelectricity

piezoelectricity  

An electric charge induced by a flow of electrons when pressure is applied at the ends of a polar axis of a crystal which lacks a centre of symmetry (see crystal symmetry) and which has different ...
Joliot-Curie, Irène

Joliot-Curie, Irène   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
248 words

...Curie, Irène (1897–1956) French physicist Irène Curie was born in Paris, the daughter of Pierre Curie and Marie Curie , the discoverers of radium. She received little formal schooling, attending instead informal classes where she was taught physics by her mother, mathematics by Paul Langevin , and chemistry by Jean Baptiste Perrin . She later attended the Sorbonne although she first served as a radiologist at the front during World War I. In 1921 she began work at her mother's Radium Institute with which she maintained her connection for the rest...

Debierne, André Louis

Debierne, André Louis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
148 words

...Louis (1874–1949) French chemist Born in Paris, France, Debierne was educated at the Ecole de Physique et Chemie. After graduation he worked at the Sorbonne and as an assistant to Pierre and Marie Curie , finally succeeding the latter as director of the Radium Institute. On his retirement in 1949 he in turn was succeeded by Marie Curie's daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie . Debierne was principally a radiochemist; his first triumph came in 1900 with the discovery of a new radioactive element, actinium, which he isolated while working with pitchblende. In...

Langevin, Paul

Langevin, Paul   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
240 words

... French physicist Langevin , a native Parisian, studied at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge under J. J. Thomson and at the Sorbonne, where he obtained his PhD under Pierre Curie in 1902 . He became physics professor at the Collège de France in 1904 and at the Sorbonne in 1909 . Langevin worked on the application of ultrasonic vibrations, which, following Pierre Curie's discovery of piezoelectricity, could be generated by applying a rapidly changing electric potential to a crystal, making it vibrate and produce sound waves in the ultrasonic...

Curie, Marie Skłodowska

Curie, Marie Skłodowska   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
1,533 words

...question was the nature of the source of the energy. Pierre Curie showed that one gram of radium gave out about a hundred calories per hour. One further mystery at this time was the discovery of induced radioactivity – they had found that metal plates that had been close to, but not in contact with, samples of radium became radioactive themselves and remained so for some time. The mysteries of radioactivity were explained not by the Curies but by Rutherford and his pupils. Although Marie Curie was no great theorist, she was an industrious...

Becquerel, Antoine Henri

Becquerel, Antoine Henri   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
333 words

...came from the uranium in the salt. Becquerel went on to study the properties of this radiation; in 1899 he showed that part of it could be deflected by a magnetic field and thus consisted of charged particles. In 1903 he shared the Nobel Prize for physics with Pierre and Marie Curie...

Rutherford, Ernest

Rutherford, Ernest   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
1,169 words

... October 1901 to April 1903 , during which time they produced nine major papers laying the foundations for the serious study of radioactivity. When Rutherford began working on radioactivity at the end of the century little was known about it apart from the result of Pierre and Marie Curie that it was not limited to uranium alone but was also a property of thorium, radium, and polonium. Rutherford's first important advance, in 1899 , was his demonstration that there were two quite different kinds of emission, which he referred to as alpha and beta rays....

Curie point

Curie point   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
37 words

...Curie point ( Curie temperature ) The temperature at which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes only paramagnetic. For iron the Curie point is 760°C and for nickel 356°C. It is named after Pierre Curie...

Curie point

Curie point   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
38 words

... point ( Curie temperature ) The temperature at which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes only paramagnetic. For iron the Curie point is 760°C and for nickel 356°C. It is named after Pierre Curie...

Curie’s law

Curie’s law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
89 words

...Curie’s law The susceptibility ( χ ‎) of a paramagnetic substance is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature ( T ), i.e. χ ‎= C / T , where C is the Curie constant. A modification of this law, the Curie–Weiss law , is more generally applicable. It states that χ ‎= C /( T − θ ‎), where θ ‎ is the Weiss constant, a characteristic of the material. The law was first proposed by Pierre Curie in 1895 and modified by another French physicist, Pierre-Ernest Weiss ( 1865–1940 ), in...

Curie–Weiss law

Curie–Weiss law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...–Weiss law A law that describes the magnetic susceptibility ( X ) of a ferromagnet ( see ferromagnetism ) at temperatures above the Curie temperature . X = C /( T − θ ‎ ) where C is a constant for each material, T is the temperature in kelvins, and θ ‎ is the Curie temperature in kelvins. The law was formulated by the French physicists Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) and Pierre-Ernest Weiss ( 1865–1940...

Curie’s law

Curie’s law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
89 words

...’s law The susceptibility ( χ ‎) of a paramagnetic substance is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature ( T ), i.e. χ ‎ = C / T , where C is the Curie constant. A modification of this law, the Curie-Weiss law , is more generally applicable. It states that χ ‎ = C /( T – θ ‎), where θ ‎ is the Weiss constant, a characteristic of the material. The law was first proposed by Pierre Curie in 1895 and modified by another French physicist, Pierre-Ernest Weiss ( 1865–1940 ), in 1907...

Joliot-Curie, Irène

Joliot-Curie, Irène (1897–1956)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
63 words

...Joliot-Curie, Irène ( 1897–1956 ) French physicist , daughter of Marie and Pierre Curie , who was educated by her mother and her scientist associates. In 1921 she began work at the Radium Institute, becoming director in 1946 . In 1926 she married Frédéric Joliot ( 1900–58 ). They shared the 1935 Nobel Prize for chemistry for their discovery of artificial radioactivity the previous...

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