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Nobel Prizes

Nobel Prizes   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
687 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in any field, the Nobel Prize comprises a medal and a variable amount of money (initially about 150,000 Swedish crowns), which can equal $1 million, depending on the annual profits and dividends of the Nobel companies. Among famous laureates were Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) and his wife, Marie Curie ( 1867–1934 ); the latter won the Nobel twice and was the first woman to be given the award (in 1903 and 1911 ). Oddly, Albert Einstein ( 1879–1955 ) won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 not for his famous theory about relativity, but rather for...

Cancer

Cancer   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,828 words

...by unscrupulous practitioners. Marie Curie ( 1867–1934 ) and Pierre Curie ( 1859–1906 ) recognized the potential value of radiation against cancer in 1896 when they observed that burns suffered from radiation healed as normal, unscarred tissue. Experiments at Memorial Hospital in New York in 1925 with targeted irradiation of tumors showed promising results. Congress created the National Cancer Institute ( NCI ) in 1937 to coordinate radiotherapy studies and other areas of research. The deaths of Madame Curie and other scientists who worked with...

Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Weapons   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,906 words
Illustration(s):
1

...à l'Énergie Atomique (Atomic Energy Commission) in 1945 with the intent of exploring both civilian and military applications of nuclear power. Pierre Joliot-Curie headed the commission, which overcame Anglo-American control of known supplies of uranium ore and developed the industrial capabilities to refine both it and the other materials needed in nuclear reactors. In the mid-1950s, Prime Minister Pierre Mendes-France decided to develop an atomic bomb, leading to the first French nuclear weapons test in 1960 in the Algerian desert. Although this...

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