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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

Wittgenstein, Ludwig J. J.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig J. J. (1889–1951)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
958 words

...his earlier philosophy had been committed. The major source for this later philosophy is the Philosophical Investigations (published posthumously in 1953). This work begins with descriptions of a series of imaginary ‘language-games’ in the course of which Wittgenstein tries to dispel the powerful temptation to think that there must be some single underlying essence of all language, that this essence consists in some relation of representation of the world, and that words function primarily or exclusively through naming. As described by Wittgenstein ,...

Muslim Women's League

Muslim Women's League   Reference library

Saba Senses Ozyurt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
782 words

...free, equal, and vital contributors to society” (Muslim Women's League). The mission statement of the organization reads “[T]he widespread lack of education about Islam and women's rights in Islam has led to many misconceptions about Muslims in the American society. In order to dispel these stereotypes, the MWL works to educate both Muslims and non-Muslims about Islam and women in Islam by participating in conferences, providing lectures, publications, media interviews, and ongoing classes on Quran” (Muslim Women's League). The organization's website, which...

Native American Land Use

Native American Land Use   Reference library

Christine M. DeLucia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cultures that intensified their buffalo hunting and expanded their territorial ranges. Some colonizers endorsed the concept of vacuum domicilium , which held that at contact, the North American land was empty (or “widowed” by epidemics) and thus open for taking. Critics have dispelled long-standing Western notions that Native Americans had no conceptions of land ownership: although land was not transmitted through fee-simple title, leaders directed allocation of specific territories for use by family groups, and clear demarcations of territory existed between...

Medieval Court Poetry

Medieval Court Poetry   Reference library

Samer M. Ali

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,355 words

...to fight ( taḥrīḍ ) and, most surprisingly, a warrior poetess dubbed al-Hujayjah, of the Banū Shaybān, raised armies and built military alliances to defend against an attack by the Sassanian emperor in the Battle of Dhū Qār, a monumental battle for early Islamic culture that dispelled the Sassanian's aura of invincibility. Later, at the Umayyad court, Laylā al-Akhyalīyah (d. c. 704) used her poetic skill to shame the court into making concessions, to lampoon a rival poet, al-Nābighah al-Jaʿdī ( d. 684 ), and to immortalize her deceased lover, Tawbah. Lore...

Salafi Groups

Salafi Groups   Reference library

Chris LaRossa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,169 words

...women themselves must pick up the slack, so to speak, and train to become suicide bombers and fighters. Still another variant of Salafism reveals that just as many women embrace toleration, rather than don suicide vests. Salafyo Costa is an Egyptian Salafi group that works to dispel negative stereotypes regarding Salafis, simultaneously working alongside other groups of varying ideologies to promote diversity and striving to improve Egypt's social concerns. Their name is a play on the anti-Western stereotype of continually a Salafi who would never drink...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Peter Pormann, Nancy E. Gallagher, Yasmin Safian, Robert Gleave, and Miri Shefer-Mossensohn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
7,062 words

...of Essays . Aldershot, U.K.: Gower, 1990. Collected studies by a leading historian of Islamic society, culture, and science. Savage-Smith, Emilie . “Attitudes Toward Dissection in Medieval Islam.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 50 (1995): 68–111. Dispels the myth that no dissection took place owing to an Islamic taboo. Savage-Smith, Emilie . “Drug Therapy of Eye Diseases in Seventeenth-Century Islamic Medicine: The Influence of the ‘New Chemistry’ of the Paracelsians.” Pharmacy in History 29 (1987): 3–28. Shows that contact...

Queer Readings

Queer Readings   Reference library

Stuart Macwilliam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,346 words

...must not be pushed too far. Indeed, when one considers queer theory’s suspicion of binaries, it would be ironic to entangle it in a new one. A suspicion that inward-looking uses of queer are merely a continuation of lesbian and gay treatments of the biblical texts may well be dispelled when the far wider range of minorities covered by the term “queer” is borne in mind; in this understanding heterosexual does not necessarily mean heteronormative, and what Robert E. Goss calls “gay normativity” ( 2002 , p. 229) is at odds with queer. And for their part, queer...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

Benjamin B. DeVan, Dale F. Eickelman, Abbas Jaffer, Bianca J. Smith, Charles C. Stewart, and Zahraa McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
8,884 words

... ( 1991 ), The Stoning of Soraya M ( 2008 ), and the 9 August 2010, cover of Time magazine picture women victims of Muslim men. More lightheartedly, the reality TV series All American Muslim ( 2011 ) and the Canadian drama Little Mosque on the Prairie ( 2007–2012 ) try to dispel stereotypes by focusing on Muslims’ daily lives. Legendary Persian Princess Scheherazade in One Thousand and One (Arabian) Nights is a daring empowering classical figure who spins narrative intrigue to win her life and love from a would-be executioner. “Nadia,” a recurring...

Women and Islam

Women and Islam   Reference library

Soraya Altorki, Zayn Kassam, and Valerie J. Hoffman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
8,331 words

...cults as un-Islamic. The hue of illegitimacy has been cast over the very aspects of Islamic religious life that have traditionally been most open to women. In The Emancipation of Women (1899), the Egyptian judge Qāsim Amīn (d. 1908) urged that women be educated in order to dispel the myths and superstitions they supposedly perpetuate among the young, and the Syrian-born writer Rashīd Riḍā (d. 1935) urged in his journal, Al-Manār , that women be integrated into orthodox religious life, as they were in the days of the Prophet. Throughout the twentieth...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...a man and a woman are forbidden from being in seclusion with one another, two men are permitted to be alone together ( m. Qidd. 4:12). The Babylonian Talmud ( b. Qidd. 82a ) explains that Jewish men are not suspected of same-sex anal intercourse, and with that statement it dispels any suspicion that it was going to extend the fence around the Torah to other same-sex interactions. Since the rabbis of the Talmudic period understood any extension of the prohibition as applying to all men or to no men, they chose not to extend it. Of course, the rabbis’...

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