You are looking at 1-20 of 478 entries  for:

  • All: war establishment x
  • Social sciences x
  • Results with images only x
clear all

View:

Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...invaluable Icelandic *codices . Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been used for...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...larger variety of titles, to more people, in different locations, generally at a cheaper price. The establishment of printing in about 250 towns, most of which hosted more than one *printing office , is characterized by an enormous amount of entrepreneurial experimentation. A more detailed analysis of the presses’ output and period of activity would show that a number of cases involved the work of an itinerant printer or of temporary or short-lived establishments. Printers moved in and out of a profession not yet perceived as such, nor yet clearly defined by...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was convened at Nigeria’s University of Ife in 1973 ; 1975 saw the establishment of the now-defunct UNESCO co-sponsored Regional Book Promotion Centre for Africa in Yaoundé, as well as the first issue of the influential * African Book Publishing Record . The *Noma Award for Publishing in Africa was established in 1979 , the first award going to the Senegalese author Mariama Bâ, for Une si longue lettre . Landmarks in Francophone book production in the region include the establishment of the journal and publishing house Présence africaine by Alioune...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., department stores, and cheap imports—so much activity that a new book trade journal, * Quill & Quire (1935– ) , was launched. The establishment by the federal government in 1932 of a public broadcaster, the *Canadian Broadcasting Corporation since 1936 , was a turning point for book culture in Canada. On radio, and television from 1952 , authors found both a market and an audience. After Canada entered the war in 1939 , the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the new National Film Board, and print in every form from ration books to posters were...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...as 1475 ); at Rouen in 1485 ; at Abbeville in 1486 ; at Orléans and Grenoble in 1490 ; at Angoulême and Narbonne in 1491 . Save for a few ephemeral undertakings, like the one Jehan de Rohan ran in his Breton château of Bréhant-Loudéac in 1484–5 , most were permanent establishments. Leaving aside the Alsatian region, which was politically and culturally part of the Germanic world, there were presses in about 30 French cities by 1500 . Lyons was not a university town but a major commercial centre with frequent contacts with northern Italy and Germany....

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...deploring the ‘eternal treacherous behaviour’ of his Bengali assistants (Shaw, Printing , 24–5 ). Two events in 1800 were to have a momentous effect on printing in south and southeast Asia. The first was the establishment in Calcutta of the Fort William College to train the British civilians of the East India Company. The second was the establishment of a Baptist mission at Serampore (25 km from Calcutta) by William *Carey , an ex-cobbler, who arrived at Calcutta in 1793 . His first few years in India were spent in Malda, working for an indigo planter, and...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...were already doing. What made the difference was his authority as a nobleman, as an editor, and as an author, who in 1539 received a cardinal’s hat, in modern parlance ‘for services to literature’. Bembo and his fellow theorists were not, however, concerned with whether the establishment of a single written norm would lead to a unified spoken language. That process would not occur for another four centuries, when other media were introduced. The application of a Tuscan norm based on the literature of the Trecento (i.e. writers of whom the youngest was 30 years...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...very large indeed: *Tonson and Watts, for example, employed over 50 men. In the 1750s , Samuel *Richardson had three such establishments with more than 40 men in each. These were printing and bookselling enterprises, fuelled in part by the growing popularity of the *novel and the 18 th -century *circulating library market. The *Printing Act ( 1662 ) confirmed the main elements of the trade after the chaos of the Civil War: it was almost exclusively confined to London, limited the number of presses, and ratified that entry in the Stationers’ Register...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...four of them edited by *Novikov . 6 Private printers in Russia In the 1770s , leasing agreements were granted to some non-native printers, and in 1771 J. F. Hartung became the first private printer in Russia—for foreign books only. A 1783 decree permitted the free establishment of presses anywhere within the empire, subject to the *censorship of local police. Half a dozen independent presses sprang up in Moscow, including Lopukhin’s Masonic press, with which Novikov was closely associated. It published some 50 works before being closed down in ...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...; the only provincial guild was that of Nagoya, which was recognized in 1798 . The shogunal government was not enthusiastic about the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...a huge reading public for the first time in the history of those countries. Although the 1930s were affected badly by the world economic depression, the outbreak of World War II in Europe coincided with the start of industrialization in most Latin American countries, with positive repercussions for the publishing industry. Indeed, the Spanish Civil War ( 1936–9 ) and World War II gave the emerging publishing industries of many Latin American countries an unexpected boost. A decrease in European book exports allowed domestic book production to increase,...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...in the copying and selling of more functional academic texts. The new impetus was also felt in the northern Netherlands, which for a long time had lagged behind the far more prosperous south. Under the influence of the spiritual renewal of the *Devotio Moderna and the establishment of the court of the Counts of Holland in The Hague, a remarkable regional flowering occurred. In their striving for piety and spirituality, the Devotionalists attached great value to reading and writing and were very active in copying MSS—for their own use as well as on...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...on its foundation in 1734 , opened its library every day to staff and students and allowed them to borrow books—from the outset, this library was conceived as a research facility. As the reading habit grew, so too did demand for access to books. This resulted in the establishment of lending libraries and ‘reading societies’, which in turn stimulated the demand for more books. A lending library open to all-comers had been founded in Berlin as early as 1704 , but only somewhat later did these proliferate: Braunschweig had one in 1767 , Hanau 1774 ,...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...trade for generations, such as the Greens of New England and the Bradfords of Pennsylvania and New York. For lack of manufacturing in the colonies, they imported their capital goods (presses, *type , *composing sticks , and other materials) and even their paper, until the establishment of America’s first *paper mill outside Philadelphia in 1690 . Far from London, some Boston and Cambridge printers produced their own *almanacs and other cheap books as early as 1640 , when the *Bay Psalm Book became the first book printed in British North America. One...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...maps, using copper *plates , and probably techniques, imported from Vienna: the earliest extant map is dated 1719/20 . This was part of a programme of Westernizing innovations in the Ottoman capital which also led, less than ten years later, to the establishment of Müteferrika’s famous book-printing establishment, complete with Arabic types cut and cast locally and modelled on the neat Ottoman naskhī bookhand of the period. The first book, an Arabic–Turkish *Dictionary , was printed in 1729 in 500 copies and was followed by sixteen others in Ottoman...

Accountability in Journalism

Accountability in Journalism   Reference library

Susanne Fengler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,945 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A Starting Point for Media Accountability In the years following the Second World War, public debates about the quality of the media intensified in many Western European countries, and governments threatened to tighten media control and install state-run press councils. At that time, public discontent with a press widely considered in many countries as greedy, sensationalist, and politically imbalanced ( McQuail, 2010 , p. 170), culminated in the United States in the establishment of the Hutchins Commission. This was a committee of intellectuals set up to...

Liebknechts, the

Liebknechts, the   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
647 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from East Prussia into tsarist Russia, resulted in the charges being dropped. He played a principal role in the establishment of the International Union of Socialist Youth Organizations in Stuttgart. His campaign against militarism led to his eighteen-month imprisonment for treason after the publication of his book Militarismus in 1907 . While in prison, he won a seat in the Prussian Landtag and entered the Reichstag in 1912 . During World War I, Karl Liebknecht became a leading figure in the antiwar campaign, which brought him into closer contact with ...

Trotsky, Leon

Trotsky, Leon   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
596 words
Illustration(s):
1

...socialism could not be built in Russia without technical aid from the more advanced West. It was Trotsky's hope that this aid would be provided by sympathetic socialist regimes. Viewing the outbreak of the World War I as a revolt of the productive forces against the narrow confines of state frontiers, Trotsky became interested in the establishment of socialist transnational state structures, mainly a “United States of Europe” and a “Federative Balkan Republic,” that could better manage economic progress. By guaranteeing ethnic and cultural rights, Trotsky ...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,505 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Kong's economy suffered greatly from World War I. Although its postwar recovery was rapid, reaching a peak in the late 1920s, the entrepôt trade declined again with the Great Depression, starting in 1929 , and Japan's invasion of China in 1937 aggravated the decline. Owing to war and social instability in China, Hong Kong's population continued to rise, from 300,000 in 1898 to over 800,000 in 1931 . The Japanese invasion of China led to a doubling of the population to 1.6 million on the eve of the 1941 war in the Pacific. Hong Kong's industries...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,842 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was a rearmament program, announced at Györ in 1938 , clearly helping heavy industry as part of a revision of borders and war preparations. The industrial and infrastructural capacities built up during World War II, in spite of serious losses. The burdens of the $300 million war compensation contributed to the concentration of investments into branches of heavy industry. In consequence of Soviet occupation, the establishment of a planned economy and nationalization of capital goods ( 1946–1950 ) emerged in parallel as a basis for “socialist...

View: