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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Baghdad

Baghdad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,520 words
Illustration(s):
2

...With the establishment of the independent state of Iraq ( 1932 ), Baghdad was once again made capital, first as seat to a new monarchy and then, following the military coup in 1958 , a republic. Iraqi authorities experimented with various forms of government, including military and dictatorial. Oil wealth brought prosperity and growth to Baghdad starting in the 1970s, and the city revived its role as a literary, artistic, educational, and intellectual capital of the Middle East. The Iran-Iraq ( 1980–1988 ) and Persian Gulf ( 1990–1991 ) wars, however,...

West Bank and Gaza

West Bank and Gaza   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., president of the Palestine National Council, and Shaykh ʿIzz al-Dīn al-ʿAlamī , the muftī of Jerusalem, who supported the secular Palestine Liberation Organization which, since 1988 , has accepted the “two-state solution,” implying recognition of the state of Israel and establishment of an independent Palestinian state within the pre- 1967 boundaries of the West Bank and Gaza. Thus, rivalry within the Muslim leadership of the West Bank and Gaza Strip grew between those who supported the PLO and those who reject the state of Israel and resist the...

Hārūn al-Rashīd

Hārūn al-Rashīd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
781 words
Illustration(s):
1

...having been chosen as successor, he allowed his brother Mūsā , who became the caliph al-Hādī, to ascend. His brother died under mysterious circumstances in the following year, however, and Hārūn became caliph. The Barmakids, a noble Persian family, had been important in the establishment of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty, having supported the revolution that brought it to power, and were powerful civilian administrators with strong military support through the beginning of Hārūn's rule. They had been of particular importance during al-Mahdī's caliphate, and Yaḥyā, his...

Kurds

Kurds   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,420 words
Illustration(s):
1

...KDP. Despite the establishment of a United States- and British-mandated “Safe Haven” for the Kurds in northern Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War, conflicts between Barzani, Talabani, and their respective constituencies continued, hindering political cooperation among Iraqi Kurds right up to the United States invasion and occupation of Iraq in March 2003 . The Kurds cooperated militarily with the United States, which in turn allowed them more autonomy in the three provinces that they governed—Dohuk, Arbīl, and Suleymaniya. The subsequent war and disintegration...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,916 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Palestine were dismissed. During World War I, the British occupied Palestine (in 1917 ) and thus brought to a close the continuity of Muslim rule that had lasted over the region since the rout of the Crusaders by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn in 1187 ce After the war the newly-formed League of Nations awarded the British authority over the country. The terms of the British mandate affirmed the commitments of the Balfour Declaration made in 1917 , in which the Jews were promised British assistance in the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. The...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,085 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In the twentieth century Orientalism reached its height in power and influence. The establishment of the School of Oriental and African Studies in 1917 in Britain, and the establishment of new academic chairs and journals in France, notably at the École des Langues Orientales, the College de France, the Sorbonne, and the École des Hautes Études, inaugurated a new phase of brick and mortar Orientalism. In Germany, Russia, and Italy this period also saw the establishment of important new institutions of Orientalist scholarship. At the same time, beginning in...

Cyprus

Cyprus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
885 words
Illustration(s):
2

...following the Turkish War of Independence and the subsequent Westernization policies of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey. Turkish Cypriots adopted his reforms voluntarily and viewed him as a national hero. Among the reforms that affected Turkish Cypriotsʾ attitude toward Islam were the prohibition of Arabic in religious services and the use of the Qurʿān in Turkish translation. However, religious wedding ceremonies continued during British colonial rule and were replaced by secular ceremonies after the establishment of the Turkish Cypriot...

Shīʿī Islam

Shīʿī Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,747 words
Illustration(s):
3

... emerged as the leading clerical authority in Iraqi anticolonial struggles. He called for the establishment of “a theocratic government built upon one of the fundamental principles of the Shīʿah doctrine.” The Irāqī Shīʿah were much influenced by proconstitutional Shīʿī authorities in Iran and wished to emulate that system in Iraq. Under British pressure, Shaykh Muḥammad Khāliṣī ( d. 1963 ) went to Iran in 1922 and joined forces with Khāraqānī in an incipient war against the rising tide of secularism in which they found both a political and a moral danger....

Córdoba, Caliphate of

Córdoba, Caliphate of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,515 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and almost captured by the defection of some frontier contingents of his army. Establishment of the Caliphate. After this defeat ʿAbd al-Raḥmān left the conduct of the war to his generals and focused on the last stage of the construction of his new palace-complex city, al-Madīnatuʿz-Zahrāʿ (The Most Shining City), lying 3 miles (5 kilometers) northwest of Córdoba. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Nāṣir reformed the gold coinage and the financial administration, and created a powerful war fleet with bases at Almería and Tortosa, and left behind him a rich, peaceful,...

Khomeini, Ruhollah al-Musavi

Khomeini, Ruhollah al-Musavi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,804 words
Illustration(s):
1

...abrasive, ill timed, and provocative. Further confrontation took place when Muḥammad ʿAlī Rajāʿī was appointed prime minister by the Majlis on Khomeini 's recommendation. In the conduct of the war, too, Bani Sadr clashed with Khomeini. Events in summer 1981 were potentially perilous for Khomeini. Amid all the differences between the religious establishment and Bani Sadr, who had recently gained the support of the Mujāhidīn-i Khalq, Khomeini dismissed Bani Sadr and replaced him with Rajāʿī . The Mujāhidīn took the streets and Bani Sadr called for a mass...

Yemen

Yemen   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,004 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... The establishment of the Zaydī power in the mountains of Yemen at the end of the ninth century ce is, after its conversion to Islam in 628, the most important political and religious event in Yemen. Although the fortunes of the Zaydī imamate fluctuated under Yemen's various Sunnī dynasties—Ayyūbid, Rasūlid, Ṭāhirid, and Ottoman—and never gained the complete support of the northern tribes, it established itself as the dominant authority in the highland areas, especially after the end of the first Ottoman occupation in 1636 . Its views on matters of...

Karbala

Karbala   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
984 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the American invasion in 2003 has the largest following among the disenfranchised Shīʿah of Iraq and by far surpasses that of the Ayatollah Sayyid ʿAlī Sistānī . During the Muḥarram of 2007 , a messianic cleric, with his stronghold in Karbala, arose against the religious establishment in Najaf under Sistānī. His first fatwā was to kill Sistānī and “rid the community of the source of corruption.” The insurrection was effectively suppressed on the sixth day of Muḥarram in Najaf by the Iraqi army. See also ʿĀshūrāʿ ; Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī (626–680) ; Mashhad ;...

Medina

Medina   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Medina. In medieval times Medina enjoyed little political importance. The sharīf lived in Mecca by preference, and the Egyptian or Ottoman governor usually chose to live in Jiddah on the coast. What indirectly changed the political fortunes of the city was the British establishment of themselves in Egypt, thus channeling the direct communication from Istanbul to the Hejaz overland through Syria, thence south through Medina to Mecca. The Turks, to strengthen the link, constructed a telegraph line to Medina and, in 1908 , completed the Hejaz Railway,...

Arab-Israeli Conflict

Arab-Israeli Conflict   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,805 words
Illustration(s):
4

...parts of their homeland. After approximately six months of fighting between Arab and Jewish forces ( December 1947–May 1948 ), the Palestinian and Arab volunteer forces were defeated, and on May 14, 1948, Ben-Gurion announced the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel in parts of historic Palestine. As a result of the war, approximately three-quarters of the 27,000 square kilometers (10,400 square miles) of Palestinian land came under the control of the state of Israel; the remaining portions—the West Bank and the Gaza Strip—came under the control of...

Qājār Dynasty

Qājār Dynasty   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,826 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Khan (Rizā Khān), to lead a coup, supported by the pro-British journalist Sayyid Ẓiyā Ṭabāṭabāʿī The latter was soon forced out by Reza, who, after an abortive attempt at a republic on the Turkish model, got the Majlis to approve the ending of the Qājār dynasty and the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1925 . Thus ended the century of the Qājārs, who, while hardly illustrious, did help maintain Iran's unity and accomplished some change, chiefly in the direction of gradual centralization and bureaucratization of the government and partial acceptance...

Algeria

Algeria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,044 words
Illustration(s):
2

...halted the election. Islamist Rebellion. It took only days for the FIS to lose control over the majority of its voters. Outraged young Algerians, with an Arabic education but unemployed and excluded from the bilingual secular ruling class, took to the streets and demanded the establishment of an Islamic state. Amid bloody confrontations the army at first looked for a constitutional fig leaf. It invited Mohamed Boudiaf (Muhammad Abū Diyāf), a widely respected member of the “Historic Nine” who had founded the FLN, to return from his Moroccan exile and assume the...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,879 words
Illustration(s):
3

...state power in Pakistan was essentially being wielded by a military-bureaucratic establishment that accorded a privileged status to modernist interpretations of Islamic law—particularly with regard to social issues such as the status of women—to the consternation of conservative and traditionalist scholars. Pakistan's foreign policy in this period also reflected the perceptions of a mainly Westernized political elite as Pakistan aligned itself with the United States in the Cold War by joining anti-Communist U.S.-backed military alliances in Asia, such as the ...

Libya

Libya   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,867 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1972 and 1973 the regime further reduced the already diminished impact of the urban ʿulamāʿ . The ʿulamāʿ , now bereft of the financial basis of the religious establishment, for all practical purposes became state employees in Libya and lost whatever cultural, financial, and political autonomy they had once possessed. The Libyan state assumed the role of patron of the religious establishment, heavily subsidizing religious life and religious observance after 1970 —including pilgrims performing the ḥajj and the construction of a significant number of new...

Malaysia

Malaysia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,137 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the state authorities. It reached a high point in 1979–1982 with the victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran. The demand for the establishment of more Islamic institutions in the country was raised by several organizations in national seminars and international conferences held in Malaysia. The government under Tun Hussein Onn's premiership made some concessions and decided to conduct a feasibility study for the establishment of an Islamic bank in Malaysia; when Dr. Mahathir Mohamed became prime minister in 1981 , this project received his immediate...

Madrasah

Madrasah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,406 words
Illustration(s):
2

...building in Mecca where lessons were taught was the great mosque. In Muslim India, the madrasahs were establishments of higher learning that produced civil servants and judicial officials. One of the most important events in terms of the revival of the of the madrasah during the latter part of the nineteenth century was the founding of the Deoband school by Rashid Ahmad and Muhammad Qasim in 1867 in British India. This led to the establishment of many madrasahs modeled on Deoband. Deoband itself remained a center for Islamic studies. Its madrasah was...

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