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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Systems Theory

Systems Theory   Reference library

Eve Meltzer

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,127 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the discourse of art as well as that for many, the system of all systems was the so-called Establishment and that, therefore, matters of power were most at issue. The American artist Robert Smithson, most remembered for his earthwork Spiral Jetty ( 1970 ), worked with systems of many sorts in his broad, multimedia oeuvre: perspectival, cartographic, mineralogical, among them. In response to the questionnaire, Smithson drafted an essay titled “The Establishment,” in which he, like Derrida, saw systems subtending everything. Only for Smithson, this...

Monuments

Monuments   Reference library

Marita Sturken and James E. Young

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,047 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of war monuments had been to valorize the suffering in such a way as to justify, and even redeem, it historically. But for these artists, such monuments would have been tantamount to betraying not only their experience of the Great War, but also their new reasons for art’s existence after the war: to challenge the world’s realities, not affirm them. As Albert E. Elsen has noted, modern and avant-garde sculptors between the wars in Europe were thus rarely invited to commemorate either the victories or the losses, the battles or the war dead of World War I. If...

Land

Land   Reference library

Karen J. Wenell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,872 words
Illustration(s):
2

...crimes of the present-day situation in Palestine/Israel, just as Christians had to come to terms with the crimes of World War II and their role in perpetuating forms of anti-Judaism. Others have also preferred a more universal reading, attempting to deal with the question: in a post-Holocaust era, can one critique Israel and avoid the charge of anti-Semitism that potentially results from the strong connections between the establishment of the State of Israel and the Holocaust? Recently, Judith Butler has put forward an argument in dialogue with Jewish...

Pop Art

Pop Art   Reference library

Sara Doris

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,337 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the individual to achieve universal modes of expression. On a more prosaic note, it was noted, it had effectively preempted the role of the art critic—the art expert —in being embraced and taken up by galleries and nouveau riche collectors before the critical establishment had had an opportunity to pass judgment. Two years later in his essay “The Artworld,” aesthetician Arthur Danto would explore the philosophical implications of Pop’s internalization of the critical, or theoretical, function. A 1964 encounter with Warhol’s Brillo Boxes —sil...

Bearden, Romare

Bearden, Romare (1911–1988)   Reference library

Jacqueline Francis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the profile of African American artists and black cultural expressions across the African diaspora. He was a founding member of Spiral, a New York-based black artists collective ( 1963–1965 ); an officer in the Harlem Cultural Council in the 1960s and 1970s; a force in the establishment of the Studio Museum in Harlem in 1968 ; a consultant to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library; and a speaker invited to numerous U.S. college campuses, libraries, and museums to give workshops and lecture on historical and contemporary...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Anne Hollander, Anne Hollander, Richard Martin, and Marie-Aude Baronian

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,019 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by painters such as Raoul Dufy. After World War I, fashion for women began to modernize more abruptly, and Poiret’s distinctive, leisurely elegance gave way to brisker modes as fashionable women went to work, took to more active sports, and wished to appear immature rather than ripe. Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel is now the most famous couturière associated with the period between the wars, partly because her vision of modern feminine style proved so prophetic as to allow her to renew her career well after World War II, following nearly twenty years of obscure...

Latin American Aesthetics

Latin American Aesthetics   Reference library

María Herrera, Elizabeth Millán, Hugo Moreno, Andrea Giunta, Tamara Stuby, and Rachel Weiss

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,176 words
Illustration(s):
6

...sickness, “confused” sexuality, isolationism, individualism, and dissonance. Key artists of the time, working in genres as varied as Pop, grotesque figuration, and cartoons—all of which had been identified as problematic—withdrew under intense pressure from the critical establishment, and their eventual exclusion or self-exclusion from visibility shows the sharp contradictions and tensions that were always present in the Cuban utopian scenario. In the 1970s the process of consolidation and institutionalization, much of it along Soviet lines, replaced the radical...

Politics

Politics   Reference library

Thijs Lijster, Steven C. Dubin, Mark Antliff, and James Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
19,455 words
Illustration(s):
2

...vital and engaging? Will the aesthetes launch a kind of counter-reformation against the activists? Indications from the volatile worlds of the gallery, the theater, and the media suggest that aestheticism is indeed returning in the aftermath of ACT UP’s war against the indulgences of the AIDS establishment. But it is no longer a nostalgic arcadian effort to meditate on death in the presence of beauty. The resurgence of aestheticism at the dawn of the new millennium is far from reactionary. Its pioneering proponents in First World gay cultures have...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Richard Brilliant and Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,834 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in a confessional mode or with pseudo-third person distance, but has the great advantage of speaking in his or her own voice, however contrived. What, of course, separates the literary from the visual portrait is the space and time available to the writer, permitting the establishment of the changing contours of the subject’s presence over the years and revealing the transformation of body and spirit. In this regard, the literary portrait is surely more rounded, the multivalent interaction between the subject and his or her contemporaries more fully...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Joel Snyder, Alan Trachtenberg, Patrick Maynard, Richard Shiff, Todd Cronan, and Matthew Biro

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
21,671 words
Illustration(s):
2

...likewise flourished in the genre of war photography since the mid-1850s, a practice that was both a commercial and a state enterprise. Early photographers like Roger Fenton ( 1819–1869 ), Mathew Brady ( 1822–1896 ), and Felice Beato ( 1832–1909 ) could not represent the heat of battle; technical limitations restricted them to shooting things that did not move. Their subjects were the men who fought (represented through portraits taken behind the lines), the modern technologies by which wars were waged, and war’s effects on people and the environment....

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

Indra Kagis McEwen, Bissera V. Pentcheva, James S. Ackerman, Erika Naginski, Karsten Harries, David Goldblatt, Kristina Luce, and Aron Vinegar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
25,690 words
Illustration(s):
6

...radically altered forms, as grappling with ontology together with prolepsis. Over the course of the eighteenth century, the past and future of architecture appear alternately as opposing tendencies or coterminous forces. In many ways this tension was inaugurated by the establishment of the French Royal Academies in the second half of the seventeenth century, which unfolded as part of one of the more dramatic confrontations marking the history of Western aesthetics: the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. Battle lines were drawn between those who...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Christopher Fitter, Holmes Rolston III, Daniel Joseph Nadenicek, and Allen A. Carlson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of arranging land to support human activity and ecological stability. The profession’s development was inextricably tied to a number of important aesthetic theories. Although the organization of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899 marks the official establishment of the profession, its evolution began during the early nineteenth century in the United States and was greatly influenced by eighteenth-century English explorations in landscape art. The general approach to landscape design in England shifted dramatically during the eighteenth...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

Kerstin Mey, Richard Neer, Alexander Potts, and David J. Getsy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,872 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of object-based in(ter)ventions in the public domain—responding to and/or shaping the particularities of site and providing “locational identification”—and (perhaps in a similar vein) the explosion of exhibition platforms such as biennials and triennials alongside the establishment-public exposition of private art collections within their own imposing edifices. [ See also Bourgeois, Louise ; Constructivism ; Eco, Umberto ; Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich ; Judd, Donald ; Langer, Susanne Knauth ; Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim ; Merleau-Ponty, Maurice...

Origins of Aesthetics

Origins of Aesthetics   Reference library

Paul Oskar Kristeller, David Summers, and Simon Grote

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,652 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to circus performances and other public shows; and that the Académie de Musique and the Académie de Danse, like the projected Académie de Spectacles, were not organizations of distinguished professional artists or scientists, like the other academies, but merely licensed establishments for the regular preparation of public performances. Moreover, an extant paper from the time of Colbert that proposed to consolidate all academies in a single institution makes no clear distinction between the arts and the sciences and lends additional, though indirect,...

Kant, Immanuel

Kant, Immanuel   Reference library

Paul Guyer, Salim Kemal, Kenneth R. Westphal, Theodore A. Gracyk, Günter Zöller, Mark A. Cheetham, Rudolf A. Makkreel, Jane Kneller, and Thierry de Duve

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
37,390 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to one another, he established a pattern of disciplinary contouring that remains in effect today. It is the structuring, emplacing quality of Kant’s thought that has allowed his name to travel so far in art history. As the epitome of reason’s claims to autonomy through the establishment of domains, he is also now under suspicion in this field, as it tries to understand and revise its inclusions, exclusions, and relations with other domains. But Kant is not to be dismissed. Even for those who oppose his ideas today, he is necessary. [ See also Greenberg, Clement...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...authority to “intervene in cases of war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity.” Among the AU’s new institutions is a fifteen-member Peace and Security Council, which South Africa’s President Thabo Mbeki has identified as “a collective security and early-warning arrangement to facilitate timely and efficient responses to conflicts and crisis situations in Africa” (Protocol, 2002 ). In addition, the AU’s new development strategy, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), includes the establishment of a new African peer review mechanism....

Blyden, Edward Wilmot

Blyden, Edward Wilmot   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,577 words
Illustration(s):
1

...United States were thwarted by the refusal of Rutgers Theological College and several other seminaries to admit him because he was black. Blyden became Liberia’s greatest intellectual. He completed his secondary education at Alexander High School, a Presbyterian missionary establishment, where he would later on serve as teacher and headmaster. Although Blyden’s formal education ended on his completion of secondary school, and he turned down a chance in 1861 to undertake university studies in England sponsored by prominent English admirers, he more than...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black republic. Douglass believed that the United States would do well to invest in Haiti, since it was committed to the establishment and maintenance of democracy and free trade, and that the relationship would serve the two republics well. Unfortunately, that belief would not manifest into a concrete reality, as Douglass was unsuccessful in persuading American economic and political powerbrokers to work toward the establishment of meaningful diplomatic relations and trade with Haiti. This lack of American recognition and support of black statehood...

Abolitionism

Abolitionism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,484 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the chieftaincy dispute between two Lagos princes, Kosoko and Akitoye. The British accused Kosoko of slave-dealing and assisted Akitoye, who was pro-British, in regaining his lost throne; Akitoye conceded that he would abolish slave trade. The bombardment of 1851 and the establishment of British political control over Lagos in 1861 made the coastal city the first part of present-day Nigeria to be placed under British rule. In Asante (part of present-day Ghana), the numerous battles between the kingdom and the British was precipitated by the need to force...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

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