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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Baghdad

Baghdad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,520 words
Illustration(s):
2

...With the establishment of the independent state of Iraq ( 1932 ), Baghdad was once again made capital, first as seat to a new monarchy and then, following the military coup in 1958 , a republic. Iraqi authorities experimented with various forms of government, including military and dictatorial. Oil wealth brought prosperity and growth to Baghdad starting in the 1970s, and the city revived its role as a literary, artistic, educational, and intellectual capital of the Middle East. The Iran-Iraq ( 1980–1988 ) and Persian Gulf ( 1990–1991 ) wars, however,...

Nathan's Famous

Nathan's Famous   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...millions thronged Coney Island in the summer, Nathan's became a local landmark, but Coney Island gradually fell into decline after World War II. Feltman's closed in 1954 and the following year, the company announced that it had sold in 1955 its millionth hot dog. Nathan's began to expand, opening outlets in other cities. The Nathan's chain had a growth spurt during the 1980s, when investors encouraged the establishment of larger restaurants, Nathan's Famous.  Hirofumi Nakajima ( right ) of Kofu, Japan, competes against Ed “The Animal” Krachie of New York...

West Bank and Gaza

West Bank and Gaza   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., president of the Palestine National Council, and Shaykh ʿIzz al-Dīn al-ʿAlamī , the muftī of Jerusalem, who supported the secular Palestine Liberation Organization which, since 1988 , has accepted the “two-state solution,” implying recognition of the state of Israel and establishment of an independent Palestinian state within the pre- 1967 boundaries of the West Bank and Gaza. Thus, rivalry within the Muslim leadership of the West Bank and Gaza Strip grew between those who supported the PLO and those who reject the state of Israel and resist the...

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,342 words
Illustration(s):
2

...that had accompanied all these events erupted into full-scale civil war as each group sought to seize territory while driving out the members of the other communities in a bitter and savage process of ‘ethnic cleansing’. The war was to kill a quarter of a million people, drive one million people out of the country as refugees, and displace another million or so internally. In 1994 , the USA brokered a ceasefire and in 1995 an agreement reached in Dayton, Ohio, brought the war to an end. This established a central government with a rotating...

Slovenia

Slovenia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,267 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., the Yugoslav army made a half-hearted attempt to reassert control, but the Slovenes fended them off in a largely bloodless ten-day war. Since independence, politics has generally been consensual, based on broad coalitions. In 1992 Slovenes opted for familiar figures. The largest single party was the centre-left Liberal Democracy of Slovenia ( LDS ), led by Janez Drnovšek , a member of the previous communist establishment who formed a coalition with the Slovene Christian Democrats ( SKD ). In 1996 voters once again made the LDS the largest party,...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,450 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and staffed by the Chinese. Contemporary politics Ethiopia has been through a series of political traumas and civil wars. Following a famine in 1972–74 , which cost an estimated 200,000 lives, political unrest led to the overthrow of the monarchy of Haile Selassie and in 1975 to the establishment of a socialist republic. But civilian groups failed to cohere into viable political parties, leaving the way clear for the establishment of a 17-year military regime, the Provisional Military Administrative Council, known in Amharic as the ‘Derg’. From 1977...

Diners

Diners   Reference library

Randy Garbin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to the decreased need for prep work and lack of demand. The diner's revival began in the mid-1970s, with the almost simultaneous establishment of upscale diners, the publication of diner-related book titles, and the growing ubiquity of diner iconography in the mass media. This higher profile attracted people who were increasingly bored with homogeneous fast-food meals and nostalgic for basic meals in locally owned establishments. As people rejected the haute cuisine of the 1980s during the recession of the early 1990s, the American diner serving “comfort...

Hārūn al-Rashīd

Hārūn al-Rashīd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
781 words
Illustration(s):
1

...having been chosen as successor, he allowed his brother Mūsā , who became the caliph al-Hādī, to ascend. His brother died under mysterious circumstances in the following year, however, and Hārūn became caliph. The Barmakids, a noble Persian family, had been important in the establishment of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty, having supported the revolution that brought it to power, and were powerful civilian administrators with strong military support through the beginning of Hārūn's rule. They had been of particular importance during al-Mahdī's caliphate, and Yaḥyā, his...

Saloons

Saloons   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...kind of saloon that the cocktail, a uniquely American invention, had its origins. After the Civil War, the saloon evolved to meet the needs of urban working-class males. Saloons Interior of a Saloon.  Mixologist at work, New York City. Engraving from George Augustus Sala, America Revisited , 3rd ed. (London, 1883), vol. 1, facing p. 183. dominated poor working-class neighborhoods, serving both low-cost food and drink to factory workers. These establishments were mostly frequented by male patrons, who spent many of their nonworking hours drinking beer, cheap...

Kurds

Kurds   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,420 words
Illustration(s):
1

...KDP. Despite the establishment of a United States- and British-mandated “Safe Haven” for the Kurds in northern Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War, conflicts between Barzani, Talabani, and their respective constituencies continued, hindering political cooperation among Iraqi Kurds right up to the United States invasion and occupation of Iraq in March 2003 . The Kurds cooperated militarily with the United States, which in turn allowed them more autonomy in the three provinces that they governed—Dohuk, Arbīl, and Suleymaniya. The subsequent war and disintegration...

Temperance

Temperance   Reference library

David Gerard Hogan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...struck down state prohibition laws, anti-alcohol crusades were stalled. With the start of the Civil War, Americans moved on to more pressing issues. The government tacitly encouraged drinking during the war, because a tax on distilled spirits helped finance the war effort. Military life also restored drinking as a central part of male culture for millions of conscripted soldiers. Temperance organizations regularly distributed Holy War.  In “Woman's Holy War,” a lithograph published by Currier & Ives in 1874, members of the Temperance League smash barrels of...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,916 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Palestine were dismissed. During World War I, the British occupied Palestine (in 1917 ) and thus brought to a close the continuity of Muslim rule that had lasted over the region since the rout of the Crusaders by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn in 1187 ce After the war the newly-formed League of Nations awarded the British authority over the country. The terms of the British mandate affirmed the commitments of the Balfour Declaration made in 1917 , in which the Jews were promised British assistance in the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. The...

Restaurants

Restaurants   Reference library

Mitchell Davis, Cathy K. Kaufman, and Alan S. Brody

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by and for women with a taste for lighter, more modest fare—peaked in popularity during the 1920s. The tearoom phenomenon spread to every part of the country, both urban and rural, and included every type of establishment, from fine hotels and department stores to dingy gas stations. Dining Trends after World War II. The Depression and World War II took further tolls on the restaurant industry. An increased demand for low-cost food was met with advances in food-processing technology. Inexpensive eateries across the country, including chains like Schrafft's...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,085 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In the twentieth century Orientalism reached its height in power and influence. The establishment of the School of Oriental and African Studies in 1917 in Britain, and the establishment of new academic chairs and journals in France, notably at the École des Langues Orientales, the College de France, the Sorbonne, and the École des Hautes Études, inaugurated a new phase of brick and mortar Orientalism. In Germany, Russia, and Italy this period also saw the establishment of important new institutions of Orientalist scholarship. At the same time, beginning in...

Cyprus

Cyprus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
885 words
Illustration(s):
2

...following the Turkish War of Independence and the subsequent Westernization policies of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey. Turkish Cypriots adopted his reforms voluntarily and viewed him as a national hero. Among the reforms that affected Turkish Cypriotsʾ attitude toward Islam were the prohibition of Arabic in religious services and the use of the Qurʿān in Turkish translation. However, religious wedding ceremonies continued during British colonial rule and were replaced by secular ceremonies after the establishment of the Turkish Cypriot...

God

God   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...that is, not until the sixth century b.c.e. And even then it can be argued that the firm establishment of monotheism in Judaism required the rabbinical or Talmudic process of the first century b.c.e. to the sixth century c.e. Whether one among many or one alone, the god of the Hebrew Bible possessed many familiar Middle Eastern characteristics. He was a storm - weather god who could push aside the sea and lead with a pillar of fire. He was a god of war who could mercilessly kill the enemies of the Israelites. He was a fertility god who could...

Guatemala

Guatemala   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,396 words
Illustration(s):
2

...for genocide in the civil war, including Montt. Initially popular, he soon faced demands from peasant farmers who marched on the capital demanding faster rural development. However, his administration was corrupt and in September 2015 he resigned and was charged with corruption and bribery in relation to a customs scam, as was his vice-president; and other charges followed. This scandal developed as the campaign for the next presidential elections got under way. The election result showed a rejection of the political establishment by the electorate who...

Poultry and Fowl

Poultry and Fowl   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...specific birds. Commercialization. Chicken remains the dominant poultry in America and the world. In addition to the traditional ways of preparing chicken in the home, fast food establishments have commercialized specific chicken dishes, such as the fried chicken served at KFC and the chicken McNuggets served at McDonald's. Chicken burgers are served at many hamburger establishments, and “chicken dogs” are sold in supermarkets throughout America. Many manufacturers include chicken in frozen dinners. Turkey remains a distant second in the commercial poultry...

Chicago

Chicago   Reference library

Bruce Kraig

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...War II creation based on old-fashioned pizza bread sold by Little Italy's Italian bakers, only with massive amounts of melted cheese. Italian beef, thinly sliced with lots of au jus, has a similar history. And Greeks became confectioners, likely inventing the ice cream sundae and Dove Bars, among many other treats. Finally, Chicago has become a center of Mexican cuisine. Mexican groceries, bakeries, butchers, street food vendors, and restaurants abound. Many remain true to regional Mexican cookery, and others have more upscale dining establishments....

Croatia

Croatia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,509 words
Illustration(s):
2

...largest private company that was about to collapse. In 2017 the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague ruled that Slovenia should have direct access to the high seas through an area which Croatia regards as its territorial waters. The dispute dates back to the establishment of the two countries, and Croatia immediately rejected the ruling. Both countries have ruled out further negotiations, and Slovenia has taken Croatia to the European Court of Justice over the dispute, and its ruling is awaited. The inability of two EU countries to agree on...

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