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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Warfare and Weather

Warfare and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at its height, and Spain exercised influence and control over much of the known world. Philip II of Spain ( 1527–1598 ) came to view England and its Queen, Elizabeth I ( 1533–1603 ), as Protestant heretics. One of Elizabeth's first acts as monarch had been to support the establishment of an English Protestant church. In a political context, Spain ruled the Low Countries, the regions which now constitute Belgium and the Netherlands. The populations of these areas strove to throw off the foreign Spanish occupation. England, concerned that a rival great power...

Elephants

Elephants   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,100 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of forestry, mining, mineral extraction, and other development activities on elephant habitat. Political support for existing protected-area systems containing elephants needs to be strengthened and requests for downgrading of the legal protection of such areas resisted. The establishment of new reserves in regions of low coverage, such as the central African forests, is to be encouraged. In addition to these habitat protection considerations, actions to control poaching and illegal trading in ivory must remain major objectives. There is a need for a review of...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...), buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ), camels ( Camelus dromadarius ), horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ), and goats ( Capra hircus ) have become feral over large parts of Australia. During the nineteenth-century acclimatization, societies actively promoted the establishment of a variety of Northern Hemisphere species to give a European character to Australia's environment and to provide game for recreational hunting. Some of these species have become serious pests, most notably the fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ). Some...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...failed to regenerate on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been made for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and prawn ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. [See Fish Farming .] Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by pesticides, as during the war in Vietnam. Globally, mangrove losses have already been substantial. Spalding (see bibliography) noted that in Thailand, for...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been carried out for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and shrimp ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by defoliating herbicides such as Agent Orange, as during the war in Vietnam. Globally, mangrove losses have already been substantial. Spalding (see bibliography) noted that in Thailand, for...

Weather Forecasting

Weather Forecasting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,527 words
Illustration(s):
2

...availability of the electronic computer by the mid-twentieth century, made possible a scientific and more successful approach to weather forecasting. Early Efforts: Data Collection and Exchange. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the invention of the telegraph and the establishment of national telegraph networks linking cities made possible the exchange of weather data quickly and over considerable distances. It was already known that storms were mobile and that the same large storm could appear in several different cities on successive days. Benjamin...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,227 words
Illustration(s):
5

...political cohesion of European and North American states from the eighteenth century was associated with the first formal national compilations of population data, and the state is now everywhere the prime agency for population enumeration. This takes two forms. First, the establishment of national registration systems for births, deaths and marriages, often as a direct derivative of ecclesiastical records of baptisms and burials. In most developed countries, registration has been a continuous source for monitoring population change, and in a few cases...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,837 words
Illustration(s):
3

...cohesion of European and North American states from the eighteenth century was associated with the first formal national compilations of population data, and the state is now everywhere the prime agency for population enumeration. This takes two forms. The first was the establishment of national registration systems for births, deaths, and marriages, often as a direct derivative of ecclesiastical records of baptisms and burials. In most developed countries, registration has been a continuous source for monitoring population change, and in a few cases...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...factor contributing to the decline of the ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. The remains of terracing from these times illustrate a very early understanding of erosion control. The foundation of soil conservation as a worldwide movement dates from the establishment in 1935 of the United States Soil Conservation Service, with H. H. Bennett as its first director. [See the biography of Bennett .] The basis of soil conservation is wise land use and good land management. The Soil Conservation Service pioneered a system of land...

Fishing

Fishing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,882 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Straddling and Migratory Stocks Agreement .] In defense, Canada established a two-hundred-nautical-mile exclusive fishing zone (in accord with new international law) in 1977 . This embraced most of the Grand Banks, but left three outlying shelf areas unprotected. After establishment of the exclusive zone, federal and provincial subsidies to fishermen encouraged the Canadian industry to expand: between 1974 and 1981 the number of licensed fishermen grew from 36,500 to 53,000, while processing capacity was more than doubled. Expansion of the fishing...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...factor contributing to the decline of the ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. The remains of terracing from these times illustrate a very early understanding of erosion control. The foundation of soil conservation as a worldwide movement dates from the establishment in 1935 of the United States Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service), with H. H. Bennett as its first director. The basis of soil conservation is wise land use and good land management. The Soil Conservation Service pioneered a system of...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have an accurate inventory of its nuclear waste and does not know where all of it is. A “best guess” is that in 1996 there were approximately 610 million cubic meters of solid waste, of different activity levels, much of it poorly stored on open ground or at radiochemical establishments. Meanwhile, thousands of nuclear weapons are being decommissioned and metric tons of plutonium and weapons-grade uranium added to existing stocks. There is a chronic shortage of facilities for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel, and the explosion of a tank at Tomsk...

Global Warming

Global Warming   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
10,264 words
Illustration(s):
13

...of only about 250 kilometers, which is sufficient to simulate major atmospheric processes but too coarse to allow the incorporation of processes that operate at a local or regional scale. The latter requires the use of parameterization, a technique that involves the establishment of statistical relationships between grid-scale variables of the basic model and the smaller-scale processes. Calculations at the grid scale can then provide estimates for the local or regional conditions. Cloudiness, net surface radiation, various elements of the hydrologic...

Climate Change Communication in Japan

Climate Change Communication in Japan   Reference library

Midori Aoyagi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,124 words
Illustration(s):
12

...in demonstrations in front of the polluting companies’ headquarters in Tokyo. This made those victims visible to the mass media, and the mass media covered these events and issues, causing the public to become more aware of the “disease” aspect of pollution. This led to the establishment of the Environmental Agency in the early 1970s. One reason why people were slow to take action or express support for the victims of pollution is unique to Japan’s culture. McKean ( 1981 , p. 15) wrote in her book, “Japan’s cultural heritage—a carry-over from the ‘subject’ culture...

Climate Change Communication in Denmark

Climate Change Communication in Denmark   Reference library

Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the majority of climate change reporting ( O. Danielsen, 2015a , pp. 62, 78). This change coincided with another development. As climate change gradually became absorbed by the UN system, first in 1987 with the report “Our Common Future” and later in 1992 with the establishment of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), climate change coverage became more politicized. Scientific questions on whether and how the climate was changing increasingly gave way to questions of how to respond to climate change. Thus, from the late 1980s and early...

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands   Reference library

Art Dewulf, Daan Boezeman, and Martinus Vink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,430 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and the will of the ordinary people, particularly with respect to immigration issues. Fortuyn invoked a clash between the views and issues of the establishment (left and right) and the views and issues of the people ( Van Holsteyn & Irwin, 2003 ; Mudde, 2004 ). Environmental issues were framed within this strong societal polarization, with climate change portrayed as an elitist concern of the establishment. The national shock provoked by the assassination of Fortuyn in 2002 amplified the polarization and his party LPF won the elections. Most established...

Climate Change Communication in Belgium

Climate Change Communication in Belgium   Reference library

Yves Pepermans and Pieter Maeseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,483 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Climate), 4 which regularly posts articles on the small conservative news website De Bron (The Source). In addition, libertarian and authoritarian–rightwing political parties 5 occasionally use climate skepticism to further differentiate themselves from the (European) establishment. However, except for the occasional op-eds or interviews, mainstream news media hardly pay any attention to these voices for their reporting on climate change. As a result, they are confined to conservative and libertarian websites. In accordance with an international trend, the...

Climate Change Communication in Italy

Climate Change Communication in Italy   Reference library

Lorenzo Beltrame, Massimiano Bucchi, and Enzo Loner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,432 words
Illustration(s):
7

...policymaking compared to other contexts. Studies have highlighted, among other things, the early mobilization and significant international networking activity of Italian elites and social movements. Examples include the role played by the entrepreneur Aurelio Peccei in the establishment of the Club of Rome ( 1968 ), with its influential reports; the relevance of environmental issues in terms of social movements’ engagement ( Della Porta, 1995 ; Diani, 1995 ); the role of culture, identity, and meaning construction in environmental collective action (...

Climate Change Communication in Norway

Climate Change Communication in Norway   Reference library

Marianne Ryghaug and Tomas Moe Skjølsvold

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
11,108 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Duarte’s studies concerns whose voices were present in the climate-related press coverage. She indicates that those voicing opinions about climate change in the Norwegian press are a relatively homogenous group. Typically, they tend to represent the scientific and political establishment: politicians, public spokespersons, and scientists. Thus, the share of visible “skeptics” has become relatively small, and voices from grassroots organizations and other realms of civil society are largely absent. Similarly, Duarte discovered a highly gendered dynamic to the...

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