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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Liberia

Liberia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,469 words
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2

...from other countries that produced the same crops, and persistent economic problems forced Liberia to seek foreign loans. In return for support from the United States and Great Britain, Liberia served as a base for Allied armies during World War I, after declaring war on Germany in 1917 . When the war was over, foreign industries began arriving. The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company was the most influential—it started operations in 1926 and eventually became the country’s largest private employer. In 1929 , the American-led League of Nations...

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,419 words
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3

...earliest modern nationalists in Africa, and many played prominent roles in the National Congress of British West Africa in the 1920s. The process of democratic reforms, which led to independence far more quickly than the British had intended, began after World War II ( 1939–1945 ) with the establishment of an assembly for the protectorate. Chiefs dominated this body, which met for the first time in 1946 . The new constitution in 1947 provided for ten elected representatives from the protectorate and did not require that these representatives be literate. The...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,635 words
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4

...1907 , however, these Egyptian landowners began to demand more control over the economy through the establishment of a national bank. This would become part of the institutional basis of modern Egyptian nationalism. At the onset of World War I ( 1914–1918 ), when the Ottoman Empire sided with Germany, the British declared that Egypt no longer belonged to the Ottomans. The British declared Egypt a protectorate in 1914 and ruled through martial law during the war. Though the 1918 Versailles Treaty and the new League of Nations promoted the concept of...

Ghana

Ghana   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,578 words
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...British rule in the Third British–Asante War ( 1900–1901 ), also known as the Yaa Asantewa War. After heavy losses on both sides, Asante surrendered for the last time and the British exiled Asantewa, along with the entire Asante leadership. Between 1896 and 1910 , Great Britain gradually conquered the peoples to the north of Asante, many of them former Asante tributaries. In 1902 the British annexed Asante and the Northern Territories. When Great Britain acquired the western third of German Togoland after World War I as a mandate, the colonial government...

Development in Africa: An Interpretation

Development in Africa: An Interpretation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,504 words
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...conditions of these reserves, yet their wages, brought back to the reserves, helped sustain traditional subsistence farming and thus helped keep labor cheap. Finally, in regions where the local social conditions did not permit the establishment of a trade-based economy and the mineral resources did not justify the establishment of labor reserves, concessionary companies created economies of pillage, based on taxation and forced labor. The Congo River basin (split between the colonies of the Belgian Congo and the French Moyen-Congo) belonged to this third...

Hausa States

Hausa States   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
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2,459 words
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...control of the Hausa states. This Fulani campaign shook the political, economic, and religious foundations of the Hausa kingdoms and led to the establishment of the Muslim-controlled state known as the Sokoto Caliphate. In his capacity as teacher to the sons of the king of Gobir state (in what is now southeastern Niger), Usuman repeatedly, but unsuccessfully, asked the ruler to implement political and religious reforms. In the end, convinced that peaceful persuasion was useless, Usuman called for political overthrow of the Hausa ruling system. He soon built...

Chad

Chad   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,793 words
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...to the south, where southerners established a separate provisional government. With the country in complete disarray, Nigeria, fearful of a compromised border, pressured the Organization of African Unity ( OAU ) to broker a peace agreement between the warring factions. The result was the establishment in 1979 of a Gouvernement d’union nationale de transition ( GUNT ). The GUNT coalition quickly broke down, however, and violence once again shook N’Djamena. Habré fled to the eastern town of Biltine and later to Sudan. Goukouni seized control and...

Côte d’Ivoire

Côte d’Ivoire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,906 words
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...briefly landed on the coast during the fifteenth century, and the French founded their first short-lived trading settlement at Assinie during the seventeenth century to trade guns and other European goods for gold and ivory. But inhospitable conditions prevented the establishment of permanent settlements, and thus Côte d’Ivoire largely escaped the horrors of the slave trade. In the 1840s, however, the French, while patrolling the Gulf of Guinea to block the now illegal slave trade, decided to reestablish a foothold in the region of Côte d’Ivoire. In ...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,088 words
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...the country’s ills. On September 12 1974 , the Derg removed the emperor from his throne, and by the end of the year, Mengistu’s faction, which was committed to Soviet-style Socialism , had driven moderates from the government. The Revolution and Its Aftermath With the old establishment shattered, Mengistu installed a revolutionary socialist government. Abandoning earlier contacts with the United States, he relied on support from the Soviet Union. Several groups challenged revolutionary policies on ideological or ethnic grounds, but Mengistu’s regime brutally...

Gabon

Gabon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,600 words
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...ship, the Malouine , and within the next several years had signed treaties with most of the oga , or chiefs, of the estuary and coast. In the treaty of 1846 , for example, France claimed “all the land that seemed appropriate for the creation of military and agricultural establishments” and also set aside land for Roman Catholic missionary activities. The arrival of the French coincided with an important shift in the ethnic balance of Gabon. The fact that Bouët-Willaumez signed separate treaties with the various oga demonstrates the absence of a political...

Mali

Mali   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,765 words
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...parties. After World War II, France allowed each of its colonies to form political parties and elect two delegates to the French National Assembly. In Mali, Modibo Keita and Mamadou Konaté founded the Bloc Soudanais in 1946 . The party, which eventually joined the multicolony Rassemblement Démocratique Africain ( RDA ) as the Union Soudanaise–RDA (US-RDA), professed Marxism and anticolonialism. Although the US-RDA enjoyed popular support, the French government preferred the moderate Parti Progressiste Soudanais ( PPS ). The establishment of universal suffrage...

Mauritius

Mauritius   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
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2,760 words
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...of the harbor during the eleven years of his administration, setting the stage for Port Louis to become the bustling urban center of the Mascarene Islands. He introduced manioc ( cassava ) from Brazil to ensure a reliable food source. Labourdonnais also advocated the establishment of sugar as the island’s main cash crop, entrusting the construction of the first local sugarcane factory to his brother. By 1786 the island boasted ten sugar factories, but it was not until the next century that sugar would dominate the economy. The population of the island...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,584 words
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...in southern Africa. In addition, the location of some ethnic groups in southern Africa today can be traced to the mfecane. Cooperation and Conflict on the Frontier Britain took control of the Cape Colony during the Napoleonic Wars ( 1799–1815 ), initially to protect British maritime trade with Asia. But the establishment of British rule in the Cape Colony in 1806 quickly brought dramatic political, economic, and cultural changes within the colony itself. A wave of immigration from Europe boosted the colony’s white population from about 4,500 in ...

Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,028 words
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...in the late 1950s under the leadership of Acacio Mane, a Fang activist calling for African teachers’ salaries to equal those of Europeans. Mane was denounced by a priest and later executed by Spanish authorities; his martyrdom politicized Equatorial Guineans, and led to the establishment of proindependent parties, namely the National Movement for the Liberation of Equatorial Guinea and the Popular Idea of Equatorial Guinea. Violent repression on the part of colonial officials forced the parties into exile. Spain, however, was bound by United Nations agreements...

Togo

Togo   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,231 words
Illustration(s):
2

...organization in Togolese territory, and during the 1860s a number of German merchants, also based in Bremen, set up operations on the Togolese coast. German Togoland By the 1880s, the Scramble for Africa was in full swing, and the neighboring French and British colonial establishments’ efforts, supported by some local elites, to secure a dominant position on the Togolese coast alarmed the German merchants of Aného. They appealed to the imperial government in Berlin to intervene, and in 1884 Gustav Nachtigal, one of Germany’s foremost African strategists,...

African Oral Literature

African Oral Literature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,678 words
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...power, telling all what is permissible and what is not. Orality, therefore, promotes social cohesion, conserves and transmits social consciousness, while simultaneously entertaining the audience. African orature is a development of a complex literary genre that demands the establishment of its own aesthetics for its interpretation and evaluation. Unlike written literature, orature has unfixed boundaries, which gives it greater freedom in its execution and interpretation—it can thus be used to praise and criticize those in power. The principal execution of...

Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925)   Reference library

Kerry Brown

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,674 words
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3

...),whichsought reform and freedom from Western intervention after World War I; and to the founders of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 . National regeneration and revival became one of the great rallying calls for a generation that would see the collapse of a centuries-old imperial system, the impact of a global war from 1914 , and the division of their country into zones dominated by warlords from 1912 . More practical, however, was the second important event: the establishment in August 1905 of the United League (Tóngménhuì 同盟会 ‎) in Japan that...

♂ Lǐ Xiānniàn

♂ Lǐ Xiānniàn (1909–1992)   Reference library

Kerry BROWN

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,020 words
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2

...liberation from Nazi occupation. Photo by FOCR. Wikimedia, from the Romanian National Archives. Digital ID: 37860X14X66. Summary Li Xiannian survived the most turbulent periods in the history of the Chinese Communist Party, and as president became a pillar of the Party establishment and a firm supporter of the state's central role in the economy. Opposed to many of the reforms that began during his term and lifetime, he is also known for his cautiousness and hardline stance against dissent. Li Xiannian ranks as one of the great survivors of elite politics...

Wu, Emperor (of Han)

Wu, Emperor (of Han) (156–87 bce)   Reference library

Jianjun HE

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,416 words
Illustration(s):
2

...establishment of an imperial academy characterized by a Confucian curriculum, the issue of a new calendar, and the creation of reign names, the last two of which were influenced by Confucian cosmological theories. Dong Zhongshu’s advice of governing the state solely by Confucian ideas, however, was never fully realized. Although the Confucian view became dominant, other schools of thought still maintained their influence. In fact, none of Emperor Wu’s favorite officials was a purely Confucian scholar; they all showed strong Legalist, Mohist, or other Warring...

Péng Déhuái

Péng Déhuái (1898–1974)   Reference library

Michael DILLON

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,164 words
Illustration(s):
2

...view of their role, however, and this disagreement became yet another difference between them that, in spite of Peng’s loyalty, was to culminate in the great clash between the two at Lushan in 1959 . Korean War With the establishment of the PRC, the main priority of the CCP was to consolidate its control over China, but it also had a new war to deal with. After months of cross-border incidents between the newly established regimes in northern and southern Korea, the northern forces invaded the South on 25 June 1950 . Under pressure from Soviet leader...

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