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Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

... style Term used to describe a style of Gothic architecture, peculiar to England, that flourished from the 14th century to the early 16th ( see Gothic architecture , II, 2 ). The term, devised by Thomas Rickman in the early 19th century, covers the style that emerged from designs by the workshop at St Stephen’s Perpendicular style.  Fan vault of Henry VII’s Chapel, Westminster Abbey, London, c. 1503–19. Photo credit: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY Chapel (after 1292 ) in the Palace of Westminster ( see London , IV, 3(i)(a) ). The essence...

Perpendicular

Perpendicular   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
597 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Third and latest of the English Gothic architectural styles, also known as Third Pointed or Rectilinear , it followed from the previous Decorated or Second-Pointed style. Perp. first emerged in designs of c. 1332 for the chapter-house and cloisters of old St Paul’s Cathedral, London (destroyed), by William de Ramsey , and was further developed at Gloucester Cathedral, where the chancel ( c. 1337–57) displays many of its attributes. An English style, it has no Continental, Irish, or Scottish equivalent, and survived for more than three...

Nantes

Nantes   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
467 words
Illustration(s):
1

... John V ( reg 1399–1442 ) laid the first stone of the cathedral. Guillaume de Dammartin's use of the Flamboyant style represents a radical departure from traditional Breton style (see fig.). The nave was given the illusion of height by the small triforium, the columns rising uninterrupted to the vaults, and the use of white Loire limestone. The façade, with its two towers and three portals, is reminiscent of the English Perpendicular style in its simplicity of line. The 13th-century château was rebuilt from 1466 ; a formidable defensive work, it was...

Romanesque

Romanesque   Reference library

Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
989 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The notion that these ribs are structural and support the remainder of the vault is mistaken, as was demonstrated by accidental bombing in World War II, when ribs fell out but webs remained. Indeed the individual stones of the ribs are not always cut so as to join each other perpendicularly to the line of the rib, but may sometimes by cut diagonally, as occurs at Durham, and hence would be unsound were they serving as structural arches. Anthony Quiney Armi, C. Edson , Design and Construction in Romanesque Architecture (2004) Bodington, Oliver E. , The Romance...

Gloucester

Gloucester   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
562 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a revenue of 1430 pounds a year in 1536 ), it possessed one of the finest abbey churches. In essence it was a Romanesque church, whose nave was finished in c. 1160 ; but the choir was enlarged in the 14th c., then the façade, the central tower and especially a great perpendicular-style cloister were added in the 15th century. The chronicler Robert of Gloucester, author of a chronicle relating English History from Brutus to 1270 , of which a dozen manuscripts survive, was probably a monk here at the end of the 13th century. Another chronicle,...

hôtel particulier

hôtel particulier   Reference library

Christopher Tadgell

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
618 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the convenience of grouping rooms in doubled ranges to form apartments of antechamber, bedroom, cabinet and closet (royal Vincennes, c .1370 , which anticipated Chambord, 1519 ). However, the French long preferred the linear linking of rooms in a single range ( enfilade ) perpendicular to vestibule and salon. By the mid 17th century François Mansart and Le Vau were adroit at devising unobstructive staircases (Mansart’s Vrilliers, 1635 ; Le Vau’s Lambert, 1639 ), but the flexibility of the doubled range was not fully appreciated until the 1640s (Le...

Horsemanship

Horsemanship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of horsemanship that was characterized by two basic styles (or “seats”) in medieval mounted warfare, each dependent on the length of the stirrup leather. The styles were discussed in Iberian horsemanship treatises of the fifteenth century, as for example King Duarte I of Portugal, Livro da ensinança de bem cavalgar toda sela (Book of Instruction on Riding Well in All Saddles, 1438 ), but the realities of these styles were present much earlier. The Spanish term a la jineta referred to the style of the Muslims of al-Andalus, who rode with short...

Gothic art

Gothic art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,451 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in forms called “decorated”, at Wells (from 1185 ) or Lincoln ( c. 1192 ). The inventiveness of artists was deployed in spectacular systems of vaulting (transept crossing at Ely) which led in the mid 14th c. to the style called “curvilinear”, whose effects of curves and counter-curves were later contradicted by the perpendicular style, which allowed the opening up of immense bays (Gloucester). One of the first buildings of German Gothic was Magdeburg cathedral ( 1209 ). Opus francigenum penetrated local traditions, asserted itself in the nave of ...

Gothic

Gothic   Reference library

Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,003 words
Illustration(s):
2

...masons had encountered a second problem: the vaulting of their buildings. The Romans often applied semicircular tunnel-vaults along the length of their buildings. When these were lit by high clerestory windows that impinged on the vault, these too might be finished with perpendicularly aligned tunnel vaults which would meet the main vault to produce an edge or groin at their junction. Romanesque masons did likewise, but found the junction difficult. The easiest solution was to make the width of the bay containing each clerestory the same as the width of the...

England, from pre-Roman to 1900

England, from pre-Roman to 1900   Reference library

Anthony Quiney

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
5,182 words
Illustration(s):
3

... Charles Barry ’s ( 1795–1860 ) design with Gothic detailing by Pugin. Skilfully planned, its Italianate river elevation dressed in Pugin’s overall Perpendicular panelling, it is picturesquely finished with towers, one housing Big Ben, another records, and yet others flues for the hot-air-induced ventilation system. This, together with structural ironwork and cladding, make it as technically up to date as its style is old: it truly enshrines all the paradoxes as well as the virtues and aspirations of its age. The last decades of the 19th century and the first...

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Iron II. Stratum II (tenth century bce ) contained a large, well-constructed, multiroomed building in field I that has been partially excavated ( see figure 1 ). The complex (at least 11 × 15 m) is oriented northeast-southwest, with two primary interior dividing walls perpendicular to each other. One interior wall carries a stone bench along its northern face. Both walls have well-hewn stones as door jambs. The complex has two building phases. The destruction debris found within the complex included a great deal of burned mud brick. In field II a series...

Time and Timekeeping, Roman

Time and Timekeeping, Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
890 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Egypt; their use likely spread to Rome from there via Greece. Vitruvius describes a variety of designs for both (9.7–8). Roman Sundial . Timgad, Algeria. © Gerard Degeorge/The Bridgeman Art Library A Roman sundial ( horologium or solarium ) consisted of a style, also known as a gnomon, perpendicular to a convex or flat field on which it cast its shadow; the field was marked so that the direction or length of the shadow indicated the daylight hours. Surviving portable Roman and Byzantine sundials are adjustable for month and latitude to give a close...

Choir-stalls

Choir-stalls   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,251 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of English choir-stalls became progressively more daring in the course of the 14th century, as at the cathedrals of Ely ( c. 1342 ), Gloucester ( c. 1350 ), Lincoln ( c. 1370 ) and Chester ( c. 1390 ). The aesthetic of Perpendicular architecture eventually enabled master carpenters to discard the traditional conventions and to create a style with tall, insubstantial structures that best exploited the fibrous nature of wood. The medium also enabled forms to be built up from a number of component parts, and this quality was exploited to produce highly wrought,...

Oxford

Oxford   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,863 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a trial run for St George's Chapel, Windsor. The executive mason of the vault, william Orchard , also built Magdalen College from 1468 for Bishop Waynflete of Winchester ( reg 1447–86 ) with much loosely applied decorative carving. Oxford, Divinity School, showing the perpendicular-style interior, begun c. 1420, vaulted 1479–83; photo credit: Kavaler/Art Resource, NY Three new colleges of the early 16th century swallowed up some 45 house sites in the much-decayed town, its population now no more than 3000 . Brasenose College was built in 1509–18 for...

Ried [Rejt; Rieth; Rued; Ryed], Benedikt [incorrectly Beneš z Loun]

Ried [Rejt; Rieth; Rued; Ryed], Benedikt [incorrectly Beneš z Loun] (1454)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,713 words
Illustration(s):
2

...NY The rebuilding programme of Hradčany continued in an uninterrupted sequence. Two perpendicular wings were added to the south side towards the city: the smaller, eastern wing (removed during the 18th-century reconstruction of the castle) and the so-called Louis Wing ( 1501–9 ), a three-storey building of large, unplastered, ashlar blocks. This is the most progressive of Ried's Prague buildings in its understanding and implementation of Italian 15th-century styles: emphasis is given to the horizontal articulation of the elevations by cornices...

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ASOR Archives) At the center of the settlement a large, four-room house (16 × 12 m) was preserved up to three courses of stone with outer walls as much as 1.4 m thick. Three long, connecting rooms were separated by two rows of stone pillars. An enclosed room was situated perpendicular to them along the south wall. The floors of the side rooms were made out of stone slabs; the rest were of bedrock or beaten earth. The only entrance was at the northern end of the long western wall, and a small room was attached to the house at its north-west corner ( see ...

Stoa

Stoa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,371 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bc ), were very large. The use of stoas to frame specific areas also developed at this time. Thus, at Olympia the large Echo Stoa ( c. 970×11.5 m), begun c. 350 bc but completed much later, defined the eastern edge of the Sanctuary of Zeus, with its axis almost perpendicular to those of the two main temples. This function is especially evident in Ionia , for example in the agoras at Priene and Miletos , which were begun in the 4th century bc but not completed until Hellenistic times. The Hellenistic period ( c. 323–27 bc ) was the great age...

Kairouan

Kairouan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,275 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 817–38 ). Additional work was completed in 862 in the reign of Abu Ibrahim Ahmad . The mosque is a roughly rectangular structure with maximum interior dimensions of 122×70 m; it has a court surrounded by arcades and a hypo style prayer-hall occupying about one-third of the surface area. The prayer-hall, which has 17 aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall, has domes at either end of the wider central aisle. One stands over the bay in front of the mihrab, and the other abuts the courtyard. The colonnades of the central aisle were doubled in the later 9th...

Choir-stalls

Choir-stalls   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,362 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Ely ( c. 1342 ), Gloucester ( c. 1350 ), Lincoln ( c. 1370 ) and Chester ( c. 1390 ). At Ely, as at Winchester, an attempt was made to adapt the elements of French Rayonnant architecture. It was the aesthetic of Perpendicular architecture, however, that eventually enabled master carpenters to discard the traditional conventions and to create a style with tall, insubstantial structures that best exploited the fibrous nature of wood. The medium also enabled forms to be built up from a number of component parts, and this quality was exploited to produce highly...

Art and Architecture

Art and Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,224 words
Illustration(s):
2

...late-nineteenth-century debate about the development of a national architectural style. The debate revolved around the use of a neo-indigenous versus a European-based classical or even neo-Gothic architectural style for new public buildings. Much of Europe was then using the Beaux Arts style of elaborate classicism, as was the United States. This controversy arose within the context of self-conscious presence in various international arenas. Exemplary of the “neo-indigenist” style are the decorative bas-reliefs on the base of Noreña's statue of Cuauhtemoc,...

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