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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

Viola d’amore

Viola d’amore   Reference library

Myron Rosenblum

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...viola d’amore and organ (1938) were the first major 20th-century compositions for viola d’amore. Numerous other 20th-century composers included the instrument in operas and chamber music. The Viola d’Amore Society of America was created in 1977. Its activities focus on frequent international congresses, yearly newsletters, fostering editions of old and new music, and encouraging luthiers. For full discussion of viola d’amore repertory and associated bibliography see GMO . Bibliography J.P. Eisel : ‘Von der Viole d’Amour’, Musicus...

Tonguing

Tonguing   Reference library

Bruce Dickey and David Lasocki

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,727 words
Illustration(s):
1

...single tonguing. Bibliography M. Castellani and E. Durante : Del portar della lingua negli instrumenti di fiato (Florence, 1979) P. Ranum : ‘ Tu–ru–tu and tu–ru–tu–tu : Toward an Understanding of Hotteterre’s Tonguing Syllables’, The Recorder in the Seventeenth Century: Utrecht 1993 , 217–54 P. Ranum : ‘French Articulations: a Mirror of French Song’, Traverso , vol.20/3 (1998), 1–3 Bruce Dickey , David Lasocki ...

Nōkan

Nōkan   Reference library

David W. Hughes

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
599 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the nearest fingerhole; it causes the overblown octave to be sharp at the lower end and flat at the top. On a typical flute the internal diameter is approximately 11 mm at the nodo and 16 mm near the closest fingerhole, tapering again to 11 mm at the lower end. Nōkan, early 20th century, Japan. (Aurelia W. Hartenberger, EdD) Since the nōkan does not share a melody with another instrument or with the voice, there is less need for a pitch standard than there is with the ryūteki , and individual flutes vary somewhat both in basic pitch and in interval structure...

Racket

Racket   Reference library

William Waterhouse

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,872 words
Illustration(s):
1

...M. Mersenne : Harmonie universelle (Paris, 1636–7/ R ; Eng. trans. of the books on instruments, 1957) P. Macquer : Dictionnaire portatif des arts et métiers , vol.2 (Yverdon, 1766) V.C. Mahillon : Catalogue descriptif et analytique du Musée instrumental du Conservatoire royal de musique de Bruxelles , vol.2 (Ghent, 1896, 2/1909); vol.4 (Ghent, 1912) [both vols. repr. 1978 with addl material] P. de Wit : Katalog des Musikhistorischen Museums von P. de Wit (Leipzig, 1903) E. Mandyczewski : Geschichte der k.k. Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde , (Vienna, 1912)...

Temperaments

Temperaments   Reference library

-MARK Lindley

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
19,638 words
Illustration(s):
22

... Diapason , vol.73/6 (1982), 6–7 P. Barbieri : ‘Il temperamento equabile nel periodo frescobaldiano’, Girolamo Frescobaldi: Ferrara 1983 , 387–424 E. Dombois : ‘Die Temperatur für Laute bei John Dowland (1610)’, Alte Musik: Praxis und Reflexion , Basler Jb für historische Musikpraxis , suppl. (1983), 328–39 P.S. Forrester : ‘Citterns and their Fingerboard’, LSJ , vol.23 (1983), 15–20 R. Steblin : A History of Key Characteristics in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries (Ann Arbor, 1983/ R ) P. Widensky : ‘Fragen der Stimmung und...

Koto

Koto   Reference library

W. Adriaansz and Henry Johnson

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,610 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(short 21-string), teion-nijūgen (or tei-nijūgen : bass, 20 strings), teion-nijūgogen (bass, 25 strings), nijūgen (20 strings), sanjūgen (30 strings), and poppukōn (popcorn: 17 strings). These instruments are often used in ensemble playing of contemporary music, although the jūshichigen, nijūgen , and sanjūgen are especially well-known examples of new and larger koto that are also played as solo instruments. Interestingly, the term nijūgen is used for a range of larger koto that have 20 to 25 strings. For discussion of koto music, schools of performance...

Reed organ

Reed organ   Reference library

Barbara Owen

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
6,123 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to Japan, one of the few countries where reed organs were still manufactured in the late 20th century, and India, where its integration resulted in the small, portable harmoniums still made there. At the height of their popularity American reed organs could be found throughout the world; in Europe they were even copied by such builders as Mannborg of Saxony and others in Scandinavia. Interest in the reed organ began to wane in the first decades of the 20th century. Mass-production techniques had been applied to piano making, lowering the cost of...

Violin

Violin   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Peter Cooke, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
22,677 words
Illustration(s):
10

...Family and its Scientific Background’, Soundings , vol.7 (1978), 101–16 F. Prochart : Der Wiener Geigenbau im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Tutzing, 1979) F. Mele : ‘19th– and 20th–Century Violin Makers’, The Strad , vol.90/1074 (1979–80), 912–5 R.B. Nevin : ‘Violin Varnish’, The Strad , vol.90/1074 (1979–80), 446–8 P.L. Shirtcliff : ‘The Violin–Making Schools of Europe’, The Strad , vol.90/1074 (1979–80), 442–5 H. Heyde and P. Liersch : ‘Studien zum sächischen Musikinstrumentenbau des 16./17. Jahrhunderts’, Jb Peters , vol.2 (1980), 230–59 C. Vettori...

Keywork

Keywork   Reference library

Philip Bate and Jerry Voorhees

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,362 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (London, 1939/ R ) F.G. Rendall : The Clarinet (London, 1954, rev. 3/1971 by P. Bate) P. Bate : The Oboe (London, 1956, 3/1975) A.C. Baines : Woodwind Instruments and their History (London, 1957, 3/1967) L.E. Gilliam and W. Lichtenwanger : The Dayton C. Miller Flute Collection: a Checklist of the Instruments (Washington, DC, 1961) L.G. Langwill : The Bassoon and Contrabassoon (London, 1965) P. Bate : The Flute (London, 1969, 2/1979) P. Bate : The Bate Collection of Historical Wind Instruments (Oxford, 1976) N. Toff : The...

Pitchpipe

Pitchpipe   Reference library

Bruce Haynes

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
923 words
Illustration(s):
1

...sources indicate that pitchpipes rather than tuning forks were normally used as tuning devices for vocal and instrumental ensembles and keyboard instruments at least until the beginning of the 19th century. Pitchpipe, reed-blown chromatic type, Czech Republic, early to mid-20th century. (Aurelia W. Hartenberger, Ed.D) Pitchpipes were described by Mersenne (1636–7), William Turner (i) (1697), Mattheson (1721), Tans’ur (1746), and others. Mendel cities a pitchpipe that Handel ‘constantly carried with him’. In the British Isles and its colonies pitchpipes...

Bach

Bach   Reference library

Denis Arnold and Basil Smallman

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,022 words
Illustration(s):
1

...children of Johann Ambrosius Bach ( b Erfurt, 22 Feb. 1645 ; d Eisenach, 20 Feb. 1695 ), a town musician in Eisenach, and his first wife Maria Elisabeth (née Lämmerhirt). After the death of his parents Sebastian was sent, with his brother Johann Jacob , to live with their eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach (ii) ( b Erfurt, 16 June 1671 ; d Ohrdruf, 22 Feb. 1721 ), who was organist at Ohrdruf, near Arnstadt, and a one-time pupil of Pachelbel. Of the 20 children of J. S. Bach's two marriages, five of the six sons to survive infancy...

continuo

continuo   Reference library

Christopher Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,056 words
Illustration(s):
5

...orchestral passages. Continuo did not die out completely in the 19th century: it is found, for example, in Italian opera recitative or such church music as Bruckner's Requiem ( 1849 ), in which the organ part is figured. Neo-classical uses of the continuo for recitative in the 20th century include Britten's Cantata academica ( 1960 , piano) and Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress ( 1951 , piano). 3. Instrumentation For the most part continuo instruments are not specified. Exceptionally, Monteverdi indicates harpsichords, chitarroni, harp, regals, and...

Accordion

Accordion (1905)   Reference library

Helmi Strahl Harrington and Gerhard Kubik

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
5,304 words
Illustration(s):
2

...three reed banks, the middle one tuned ‘pure’ and the two outer ones tuned respectively sharp and flat to the main note (and with about 40 cents difference between each other), producing a wide tremolo. Accordions are most commonly tuned to equal temperament, although the late 20th century saw experiments with other temperaments. Notably, Pauline Oliveros had an accordion tuned in two different systems of just intonation, and altered its sound electronically. 2. Types. The accordion family has a complex taxonomy. The first level of division is...

Guanzi

Guanzi   Reference library

Alan R. Thrasher

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
999 words
Illustration(s):
1

...opera and other popular genres, both the guanzi and houguan are used as mid-range instruments, especially noted for their effectiveness in imitating nasal styles of singing. A small solo repertory emerged during the mid-20th century based upon the qupai tradition of playing old opera melodies in embellished forms. The Korean p’iri , Vietnamese pí lê , Thai pī nai , and Khmer pī a are related instruments. Guanzi, wood and pewter, China. (Jeremy Montagu Collection, Oxford) Bibliography A.C. Moule : ‘A List of the Musical and...

Oboe

Oboe   Reference library

Janet K. Page, Jeremy Montagu, Geoffrey Burgess, Bruce Haynes, Geoffrey Burgess, and Michael Finkelman

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
21,623 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(e.g. Parsifal ) and Mahler. The tradition of tuning orchestras to the oboe is documented from the beginning of the 19th century. According to Vogt and Fétis ( Manuel des compositeurs , Paris, 1837, p.117), the narrow bore of the oboe made it less susceptible than other wind instruments to pitch variation caused by temperature fluctuations. 4 . The 20th and 21st centuries. (i) The Conservatoire oboe: dissemination and construction. Since World War I the Conservatoire oboe has, with only minor local variations, been in use by soloists and...

Fret

Fret   Reference library

Ian Harwood and Jonathan Santa Maria Bouquet

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,083 words
Illustration(s):
1

...: ‘Fifteenth-Century Instruments in Tinctoris’s De inventione et usu musicae ’, GSJ , vol.3 (1950), 19–26 M. Remnant : ‘The Use of Frets on Rebecs and Mediaeval Fiddles’, GSJ , vol.21 (1968), 146–5 L.P. Grijp : ‘Fret Patterns of the Cittern’, GSJ , vol.34 (1981), 62–97 P.S. Forrester : ‘Citterns and their Fingerboard’, LSJ , vol.23/1 (1983), 15–20 M. Lindley : Lutes, viols, and temperaments (Cambridge, 1984) Ian Harwood / Jonathan Santa Maria Bouquet /R ...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Harvey Turnbull/Paul Sparks/R (1, 2, 5, 6, 8(ii)), James Tyler/R (3, 4), Tony Bacon/R (7), Oleg V. Timofeyev (8(i)), Gerhard Kubik/R (8(iii)), Thomas F. Heck (Bibliography)

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,769 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (1981), no.42, p.2 T. Rossing : ‘Physics of Guitars: an Introduction’, Journal of Guitar Acoustics (1981), no.4, pp.45–67 J. Schneider : ‘The Microtonal Guitar’, Guitar & Lute , (1981), no.16, pp.42–6; (1981), no.17, pp.32–4; (1981), no.19, pp.28–31; (1982), no.20, pp.20–2; (1982), no.21, pp.33–4; (1982), no.25, pp.14–7 Acoustical Society of America Meeting CIII: Guitar Session: Chicago 1982 [ Journal of Guitar Acoustics , no.6 (1982)] J. Meyer : ‘Fundamental Resonance Tuning of Guitars’, Journal of Guitar Acoustics (1982), no.5, p.19 T. Wheeler...

Reed

Reed   Reference library

Philip Bate, Geoffrey Burgess, and James B. Kopp

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,616 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1660–1830: a Survey of Surviving Written Evidence’, Journal of the International Double Reed Society , vol.12 (1984), 14–33 T.E. Hoeprich : ‘Clarinet Reed Position in the 18th Century’, EMc , vol.12/1 (1984), 49–55 P. White : ‘Early Bassoon Reeds: a Survey of Some Important Examples’, JAMIS , vol.10 (1984), 69–96 G. Burgess and P. Hedrick : ‘The Oldest English Oboe Reeds? An Examination of Nineteen Surviving Examples’, GSJ , vol.42 (1988), 32–69 D.H. Smith : Reed Design for Early Woodwinds (Bloomington, 1992) G. Burgess : ‘Historical Oboe Reeds:...

Shamisen

Shamisen   Reference library

W.P. Malm and Henry Johnson

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,830 words
Illustration(s):
1

...F. Koizumi, Y. Tokumaru, and O. Yamaguchi, eds.: Asian Musics in an Asian Perspective (Tokyo, 1977/R), 217 R. Emmert and Y. Minegishi , eds.: Musical Voices of Asia (Tokyo, 1980), 284 only W.P. Malm : Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments (Tokyo, 2000, 3/2009) Y. Tokumaru : L’aspect mélodique de la musique de syamisen (Leuven, 2000) P. Flavin : Sakumono: Musical and Textual Humor in Japanese Chamber Music of the Tokugawa Period (diss., U. of California, Berkeley, 2002) J. Keister : Shaped by Japanese Music: Kikuoka Hiroaki and...

Lamellaphone

Lamellaphone   Reference library

Gerhard Kubik and Peter Cooke

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
6,039 words
Illustration(s):
5

...countless forms developed in sub-Saharan Africa. Until about the middle of the 20th century, before the instruments disappeared from many areas in that region, there was great diversity in technical devices and playing techniques. In the wake of the slave trade, some types of lamellaphone spread from Africa to other regions of the world, including various parts of the Caribbean and Central and South America. There are large collections of lamellaphones from the late 19th and early 20th centuries in European museums. 2 . Terminology. In ethnographic and...

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