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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

Korea, North

Korea, North   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Feb 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
808 words
Illustration(s):
4

...from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, leading to suspicions that it was developing its own nuclear weapons. Upon his death in 1994 , Kim Il Sung was succeeded by his son, Kim Jong Il . In the early 2000s, uncertainty surrounding North Korea's nuclear capabilities cast unease across the entire region. Talks between North and South Korea continued in an attempt to normalize relations between them. In 2003 North Korea's relations with the United States deteriorated when the US accused the country of having a secret nuclear weapons programme....

Korea, North

Korea, North   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
626 words
Illustration(s):
1

...nuclear weapons and a series of incursions into South Korean territory. A mutual cooperation treaty between the two Koreas was signed in 2000 . Kim Jong Il ( 1942–2011 ) succeeded his father as President in 1995 . Since 2006 North Korea has successfully tested nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. In 2011 , Kim Jong Il died and was succeeded by his youngest son, Kim Jong Un ( c . 1983 – ). During his first years in power Kim stepped up his rhetoric against South Korea and the USA, and rejected international demands that he end his nuclear...

Sea Ice

Sea Ice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,223 words
Illustration(s):
5

...may still be close to 4°C. Thus a lake can freeze early while considerable heat remains at depth. When the salinity exceeds 24.7 psu (practical salinity units, equivalent to parts per thousand), there is no temperature of maximum density, and convection continues down to the freezing point (−1.8°C for typical sea water). The whole upper water column, down to the level of a density gradient (the pycnocline), has to reach the freezing point before ice can form at the surface. A sea therefore takes longer to freeze over than a lake. A salinity of 24.7 psu...

water and water types

water and water types   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,597 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1). All three states coexist in equilibrium at the triple point for H 2 O near 0.01 °C (273K), 0.006 bar (0.0006 MPa) (Tr. pt, Fig. 1). Cirrus clouds form at triple-point conditions. At °C and surface pressure, liquid water freezes to become solid. Along the solid (ice I–liquid) boundary, increasing pressure causes liquid water to freeze at a lower temperature. Conversely, ice skaters glide effortlessly over the ice as their weight ( P ) induces melting; beneath their blades a two-phase region develops: a thin film of water over ice. Along the vapour–liquid...

Antarctica

Antarctica   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,869 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the United Kingdom, and the United States as original signatories. Since 1959 , a number of other states have joined the treaty. Notably, the treaty prohibits all military activity in Antarctica, along with the testing of nuclear weapons and the disposal of radioactive waste. The cornerstone of the treaty is found in Article IV, which freezes the status of territorial claims in Antarctica. The problems of sovereignty, therefore, have not been solved but simply set aside. In recognition of the overexploitation of Antarctic marine living resources, the 1972 ...

Science Fiction

Science Fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,330 words
Illustration(s):
2

...1–82. Special “Young SF” issue. Hintz, Carrie , and Elaine Ostry , eds. Utopian and Dystopian Writing for Children and Young Adults . New York: Routledge, 2002. Fine collection of scholarly essays. Lenz, Millicent . Nuclear Age Literature for Youth: The Quest for a Life-Affirming Ethic . Chicago: ALA, 1990. Well-done study of nuclear war fiction. The Lion and the Unicorn 28.2 (2004): 171–313. Special children's and young adult science fiction issue. Molson, Francis J. , and Susan G. Miles . “Young Adult Science Fiction.” In Anatomy of Wonder: A...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,256 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... However, retrenchment proved unpopular and only voting for a third party, and provincial support for the 1981 South African (Springbok) Rugby Tour, kept National in. Meanwhile Muldoon fostered large new export and import-substitution (“Think Big”) industries. From 1982 freezes on wages, prices, rents, and interest rates were used to reduce cost-of-living increases. Unpopular with many businesspeople as well as workers, Muldoon was defeated by Labour under David Lange in 1984 . Lange's government moved largely in the monetarist and deregulatory...

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems   Reference library

Maria C. Bruno

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,345 words
Illustration(s):
4

...clever ways to freeze-dry potatoes so that they could be stored for up to 20 years. As the Russian-born and US-trained anthropologist John Murra ( 1960 ) described, they “domesticated the cold” putting piles of tubers out to freeze in the below-zero temperatures common in the dry austral winter season. In the daytime, women and men “dance” or step over the piles of potatoes to squeeze out the water ( Figure 2 ). They freeze again over night, get stomped and dried again in the bright daylight, and in two to three days are freeze-dried. These potatoes...

Atmosphere

Atmosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,482 words
Illustration(s):
2

...system. (This prediction is somewhat counterintuitive, because the Sun is gradually consuming its nuclear fuel as it converts hydrogen to helium; however, it is a standard feature of virtually all solar evolution models.) If the atmospheric CO 2 concentration on the early Earth were the same as today, and if no other greenhouse gases besides water vapor were present in significant amounts, this decrease in solar luminosity would have caused the oceans to freeze over completely. The geologic record, however, indicates that liquid water has been present on...

vernacular architecture

vernacular architecture   Reference library

Paul Oliver

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
10,858 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Cornwall, Quercy in southern France, and wherever slate occurs. Limestone is also sometimes used, depending on the type of stone. In the Cotswolds of England, blocks of stone would be stood in the open air during winter, and water poured over them frequently. This caused them to freeze in icy conditions, and to split into sections which made useful roof tiles (‘Stonesfield slate’). But there are many other types of cladding—made from interwoven broad strips of flattened bamboo for instance, as found in the Pacific islands. Again, it’s the availability of the...

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Ralph Carter and James M. Scott

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,423 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (1993) How Congress Influences Foreign and Domestic Policy. In R.B. Ripley and J.M. Lindsay (eds.) Congress Resurgent: Foreign and Defense Policy on Capitol Hill . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 3–14. McCormick, J.M. (1985) Congressional Voting on the Nuclear Freeze Resolutions. American Politics Quarterly 13, 122–36. McCormick, J.M. , and Black, M. (1983) Ideology and Voting on the Panama Canal Treaties. Legislative Studies Quarterly 8, 45–63. McCormick, J.M. , and Wittkopf, E.R. (1990) Bipartisanship, Partisanship, and Ideology...

True Seals

True Seals   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
13,702 words
Illustration(s):
9

...June and may continue into July. Most Baikal seals are solitary. Longevity: males 52 years, females 56. Caspian seal Pusa caspica Found in the landlocked, saline Caspian Sea, sometimes entering rivers. During breeding season, they concentrate at shallow N end of lake, which freezes over. During summer, they move to water in the deeper middle and S portion. Population said to number approximately 500,000–600,000 but concerns about its status persist. head-tail length both sexes around 130–140cm; weight 50–60kg. Form: gray back with lighter gray sides and...

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
20,780 words
Illustration(s):
3

... and Argentina remained strained for several years, with both parties refusing to declare a cease of hostilities and mend diplomatic relations. A détente process started in 1989 led to a set of agreements finalized in Madrid in February 1990 . These agreements included a freeze of sovereignty issues, restoration of diplomatic relations, and a series of confidence-building measures that have been quite successful. The Antarctic Treaty The Antarctic Treaty is an international agreement focused on preserving Antarctica for peaceful purposes, mainly for...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Ian Nish, Gordon Daniels, Stephen Large, Gordon Daniels, Akashi Yoji, Ian Gow, John Chapman, Peter Davies, and Gordon Daniels

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,629 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the price of many goods was frozen at their 18 September level. By December even the distribution of charcoal was subjected to government ordinance. Despite this fine mesh of official regulations, Japan's consumer economy still proved difficult to control. The October price freeze was impossible to enforce and black marketeering became an established feature of city life. Perhaps the strangest product of the new, supposedly moralistic economy, was the appearance of scrap metal dealers on annual lists of Tokyo's wealthiest citizens. By 1940 government...

Historical Overview

Historical Overview   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith, John U. Rees, Rachelle E. Friedman, John U. Rees, Alison Tozzi, Kara Newman, Anne Mendelson, Amy Bentley, Sylvia Lovegren, and Sylvia Lovegren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...equipment such as thermal-immersion circulators, dehydrators, centrifuges, and the “anti-griddle” (a flash-freeze range top), along with syringes, liquid nitrogen, and hydrocolloids were used to create such foods as champagne gelée with caviar and white chocolate fizz; or Japanese oyster with yuzu cloud and citrus pop rock foam; or foie gras served with cherry-yuzu gelée, bacon dust, and aerated ginger brioche; or pork belly with kimchee consommé, freeze-dried banana, and wasabi peanut butter powder; or a deconstructed tuna Nicoise featuring quail egg cooked at...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
44,393 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Tokugawa Japan and later, in which members of a nuclear family farmed a small plot of land (Smith 1959 ; on p. 103, a Tokugawa-era print shows two men and a woman working next to each other threshing wheat). In these forms of family labor, men and women worked together in the fields, for example, planting and harvesting rice. The direct involvement of women in farm production seems to have left a powerful egalitarian imprint on gender relations: Planting rice may be back-breaking work, but in a nuclear farming family, the collaborative labor of both women...

Foreign Policy Leadership in the Global South

Foreign Policy Leadership in the Global South   Reference library

Andrea K. Grove

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,314 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in construction) spread among hundreds of companies. At first framing his position as one of anti-imperialism, Erdogan rejected the “foreign intervention in friend and brother Libya” (quoted in Haas, 2013 , p. 153). Turkey did not cooperate with efforts mandated by the UN to freeze Qaddafi’s assets and criticized the no-fly zone designed to protect civilians from the regime ( Haas, 2013 , p. 153). Erdogan worked via telephone to talk down Qadhaffi but did not succeed. Amid protests against Turkey within Libya, Erdogan “played it safe” and lined up with...

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