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fundamental rule of psychoanalysis

The principle according to which a patient undergoing psychoanalysis should engage wholeheartedly in free association. Also called the basic rule of psychoanalysis. See also ...

Psychoanalytic Methods and Critical Cultural Studies

Psychoanalytic Methods and Critical Cultural Studies   Reference library

Atilla Hallsby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Communication and Critical Cultural Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
14,688 words
Illustration(s):
7

...and practice of rhetoric, psychoanalytic methods offer conceptually rich insights tethered to the concepts of the unconscious, the signifier , and the drive (among others) that enable the aims of CCS scholars. The sections that follow offer a brief survey of psychoanalysis in rhetorical and CCS before and after the linguistic turn. The latter section, which comprises the bulk of this entry, reviews the four fundamental concepts of psychoanalysis, the registers of the unconscious, and the “Seminar on ‘The Purloined Letter.’” Psychoanalysis Before the...

Legal Realism

Legal Realism   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,726 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and charged Dean Pound, of Harvard, with telling “bed-time stories for the tired bar” (p. 435 n. 3) The following year, Pound countercharged that realist law professors had exaggerated the unreliability of legal rules, engaged in empirical work without considering its purpose, overemphasized judicial psychoanalysis, and neglected the role of moral values in law. But Pound did not specifically identify the realists. Llewellyn responded to Pound's “call” by creating, with Jerome Frank , three possible lists of realists, which he sent to Pound in an...

Film

Film   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,440 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Schrader. Writing in a period of political unrest and disillusionment, film noir critic-directors such as Schrader discerned the continued relevance of the cycle as a vehicle for social commentary. Feminist film noir critics in the 1970s analyzed the film cycle's representations of women as expressions of the misogyny prevalent in patriarchal society and explored the value of psychoanalysis to the interpretation of its corpus. They also directed renewed attention to the cultural construction of the femme fatale and the careers of Barbara Stanwyck , Gloria...

Conceptual Art

Conceptual Art   Reference library

Jacob Stewart-Halevy, Michael Baldwin, Charles Harrison, Mel Ramsden, Mary Kelly, and Yair Guttmann

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,663 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , edited by James Strachey , Vol. 7, pp. 3–122. London: Hogarth, 1953. First published 1901. Kelly, Mary . “Miming the Master: Boy-Things, Bad Girls, and Femmes Vitales.” In Imaging Desire , by Mary Kelly , pp. 203–230. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996. Lacan, Jacques . “The Line and Light.” In The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-analysis , edited by Jacques-Alain Miller , translated by Alan Sheridan , pp. 91–104. New York: W.W. Norton, 1978. First published...

Wilde, Oscar

Wilde, Oscar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
4,846 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tragic consequences.” Ellmann's notion of Salomé as a round-robin of frustrated compulsions has the advantage of explaining why Wilde's play harbors such intense implications of decadence beyond Salome's necrophilic lust for John the Baptist. Her gruesome kiss becomes the enactment of everyone's covert perversity. Nonetheless, there is a fundamental paradox at the heart of any socially positive “perverse” reading of Salomé —namely, that if Wilde contributes a homoerotic dimension to the nineteenth-century myth of Salome, he depicts same-sex lust as...

infancy, mind in

infancy, mind in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,170 words
Illustration(s):
5

...philosophies. Psychoanalysis, by focusing on unconscious organizing processes of the individual, created a new interest in the development of the child's separate mental identity: a ‘self’ whose motivation and awareness grow within the protective mother–child relationship. John Bowlby's attachment theory takes up this view and interprets the emotional strength of the mature self as a product of the sensitivity and responsiveness of maternal care in the first years. Cognitivists emphasize the novelty-seeking and problem-solving tendencies of infants as...

Sciences

Sciences   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,174 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Today. ” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 571 (September 2000): 14–29. Chodorow, Nancy . The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Deegan, Mary Jo , ed. Women in Sociology: A Bio‐bibliographical Sourcebook . New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. Gacs, Ute , et al., eds. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. Gilligan, Carol . In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development ....

Sexuality

Sexuality   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
17,153 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and intersexed people. The Twentieth Century. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the emergence of psychoanalysis implied fundamental changes in the perception of sexuality and politics. In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality ( 1905 ), Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) followed the evolutionary view of human sexuality, relating the history of the species with that of the life of individuals. According to his interpretation, a person achieved “normal” sexuality only as the result of complicated life processes. Some people were successful at...

Film

Film   Reference library

Noël Carroll, Paul Messaris, Carl Plantinga, Edward Dimendberg, David Bordwell, and Stephen Prince

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as Schrader discerned the continued relevance of the cycle as a vehicle for social commentary. Feminist film noir critics in the 1970s analyzed the film cycle’s representations of women as expressions of the misogyny prevalent in patriarchal society and explored the value of psychoanalysis to the interpretation of its corpus. They also directed renewed attention to the cultural construction of the femme fatale and the careers of Barbara Stanwyck, Gloria Grahame, Rita Hayworth, and other female stars identified with their roles in films noir. By the 1980s,...

France

France   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
19,911 words
Illustration(s):
1

...“Psychosexual Axis” The source of our sexual life is in unconscious fantasies. They can be of multiple origins and can only be understood through psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, or with regression techniques (hypnoses, rebirth, or meditation). Many of these fantasies stem from childhood erotic experiences or from “first times” (first love, first masturbation, or first sexual contact). Unconscious fantasies vary depending on cultures, since they are compromises between taboos and cultural and religious interdicts. Finally, some of the fantasies are genetically...

Woolf, Virginia

Woolf, Virginia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
8,513 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Virginia Woolf . Edited by Susan Dick. New York, 1985. McNeillie, Andrew, ed. The Essays of Virginia Woolf, 1904–1928 . 4 vols. Edited by Andrew McNeillie. New York, 1986–1994. Nicolson, Nigel, and Joanne Trautmann, eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf . Edited by Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann. 6 vols. London, 1975–1980. Schulkind, Jeanne, ed. Moments of Being: Unpublished Autobiographical Writings . Edited by Jeanne Schulkind. 1976. 2d ed. New York, 1985. Further Reading Abel, Elizabeth . Virginia Woolf and the Fictions of Psychoanalysis ....

Adolescents

Adolescents   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Social Welfare and Social Services
Length:
22,463 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Reflections on the dissent of contemporary youth . International Journal of Psychoanalysis , 51, 11–22. Faust, M. S. (1977). Somatic development of adolescent girls. In Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development , 42(1), 1–90. Fischer, J. L. (1981). Transitions in relationship style from adolescence to young adulthoood . Journal of Youth and Adolescence , 10, 11–23. Freeman, H. , & Brown, B. B. (2001). Primary attachment to parents and peers during adolescence: Differences by attachment style . Journal of Youth and Adolescence , 30,...

Postmodernism

Postmodernism   Reference library

Daniel Herwitz, Sally Banes, and Charles Altieri

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,080 words
Illustration(s):
1

...piston of energy, meaning, and politics. And so just as Surrealism framed its games through a dialogue with psychoanalysis, so postmodernism has appropriated poststructuralism in framing its meaning, power, and force. Postmodern theory is in turn in many ways a contribution to poststructuralist thinking, as in the case of Robert Venturi’s ideas about architecture. Postmodernism comes into play in architecture in the early to mid-1960s, at the same time as postmodern literature. It is datable to the writings, exhibitions, and architecture of Venturi,...

History of Linguistics

History of Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
44,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...were intended to encompass were in fact guided by a set of principles quite distinct from those well-attested in the other two components of the grammar. As a consequence, most generative theorists see a morphological or word-formation component at work in grammar; however, many fundamental questions about this component remain to be resolved. Among them are whether it handles inflectional and derivational morphology in fundamentally distinct ways; whether word formation rules may have the full power of transformations; whether the relationship between...

Mexico

Mexico   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
11,207 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Mexico. The traditional approach ignored the quality of sexual interaction of people. If one interprets the decisions of the official health system on healthcare policies, attention to these problems was considered either unnecessary or a luxury. The assumptions were that problems of sexual dysfunction were always in the realm of psychoanalysis and traditionally outside the realm of possibilities available to the majority of Mexicans because of the high cost of treatment. Also, emotions of shame and undue guilt prevailed among those who had such...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,557 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hospital, where the Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna is located, is the largest hospital facility in Middle Europe, with 40-some departments, institutes, and divisions, including psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Sexual research, counseling, and treatment occur in these divisions even though there is not a distinct sex clinic as such. ( End of comment by M. Vorachek )] 12. Sex Research and Advanced Professional Education A. Graduate Programs and Sexological Research Only one working group exists in all of Austria for reproductive biology and...

Argentina

Argentina   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
28,310 words
Illustration(s):
1

...conventional teaching never reaches the subject of the sexually oppressed. Argentina, however, is changing fast, and the day may be not too far away in which these subjects, and the broader implications of sexuality for our personal lives, our societies, and our economies, will be freely, honestly, and humanly discussed in all classrooms, and in all walks of Argentine life. B. Impact of the Psychoanalytic School Escaping from persecution and war, some professionals and scholars in the field of psychoanalysis left Europe and found refuge in Argentina. Here,...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...importance of rebuilding the Twin Towers), with the possible exception of computer technology. And this failure to lead is reflected in some areas of the sexual arena as well, as can be seen throughout this chapter. The much-touted “American Century” of the 1900s (mostly the second half), may have been our historical apogee, with the ebb and flow of dominant nations and empires about to shift. The United States has certainly lost its illusion of moral authority in the eyes of much of the world (if not in the eyes of its own people), as fundamental corruptions...

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions

Operational Code Theory: Beliefs and Foreign Policy Decisions   Reference library

Stephen G. Walker and Mark Schafer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,684 words
Illustration(s):
2

...consisting of philosophical beliefs about the nature of politics and instrumental beliefs about the most effective means of realizing fundamental political values. This reconceptualization of “operational code” had two important effects. First, it facilitated the use of the concept as a construct without reliance on psychoanalytical hypotheses or the use of methods of observation employed by psychoanalysis. Specified solely as a belief system, a leader’s operational code could migrate from the domain of psychoanalytical theory to the domain of cognitive...

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