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Overview

foolscap

A size of paper, about 330 x 200 (or 400) mm. It is said to be named from a former watermark representing a fool's cap.

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...heads and hands, keys and pottery; animals, including mythological beasts; and flora and images from nature. Eventually, some items from the second category, depicting human creativity, became synonymous with various paper sizes: beakers and pots ( *pot ), and the fool’s cap ( *foolscap ). By the era of machine-manufactured watermarks, only these images were commonly in use. Some decades later, the trademark was devised: manufacturers, stationers, and latterly customers, introduced named grades of paper to the marketplace, the most famous being Conqueror from...

twins

twins   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
234 words
Illustration(s):
1

...specifically to its placement within a sheet, or relative to *chain lines , shape, size, and points of attachment. These differences can be useful in securing the provenance and dating of paper sheets. See also watermark identification. Drawings of two late 17 th -century *foolscap *watermarks that are twins : the *sewing dots are visible on the *chain lines . Line drawing by Chartwell Illustrators Daven Christopher Chamberlain A. H. Stevenson , ‘ Watermarks are Twins ’, SB 4 (1951–2),...

spies

spies   Reference library

Christopher Andrew and M. R. D. Foot

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,066 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as would careful use of a magnifying glass. Much ingenuity was also expended on methods of carrying written messages—whether in cipher or in clear—which would not be easy to detect or intercept. The Germans developed a miniature photograph, called a microdot, which reduced a foolscap page to the size of a full stop; this might easily pass a censor unnoticed. It could be enlarged, or read through a microscope. Casual sources in France were encouraged to report radar sites or V-1 sites ( see V-weapons ) in their area by using carrier pigeons which the RAF...

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