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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for the new craft. For the first time, a group of literate merchants, later defined as *publishers , were willing to invest in book production as a commercial activity. The great increase in the quantity of circulating books, made possible by the new method of mechanical production, resulted in the availability of a larger variety of titles, to more people, in different locations, generally at a cheaper price. The establishment of printing in about 250 towns, most of which hosted more than one *printing office , is characterized by an enormous amount of...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...are a number of invaluable Icelandic *codices . Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...book trade organization, was also established (Kenya’s was second, formed in 1971 , with Ghana’s following in 1975 ). In 1968 , *UNESCO hosted a regional book development conference in Accra, the first of several such regional initiatives. The International Conference on Publishing and Book Development in Africa was convened at Nigeria’s University of Ife in 1973 ; 1975 saw the establishment of the now-defunct UNESCO co-sponsored Regional Book Promotion Centre for Africa in Yaoundé, as well as the first issue of the influential * African Book...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to share the publication of particular works. Another, long-term consequence of the Counter-Reformation, the establishment of Jesuit schools throughout the country, produced a rise in literacy and fostered the development of new printing centres in medium-sized cities such as Douai, Pont-à-Mousson, and Dole. 5 The 17 th century Historians of the book who regard the 16 th century, especially the reign of Henri II ( 1547–59 ), as the apogee in French book arts from both a technical and an aesthetic standpoint, view the 17 th century as a period of decline. This...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...II of Tanjore. In his palace in 1805 , he set up a press that produced eight books in Marathi and Sanskrit. But it was in Madras that a ‘nexus between pundits, printing and public patronage was cemented with the establishment of the College of Fort St George in 1812 ’ (Blackburn, 74). This was followed by the establishment of the Madras School Book Society in 1820 , to cater for students in missionary-run schools. The SPCK’s Vepery Press continued to be active: along with the Madras Male Asylum Press (established in 1789 ), it accounted for a major share of...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Raymond of *Chatto & Windus initiated *book tokens . Often given as gifts, the tokens were exchanged towards the purchase of a book, and customers usually spent more than the value of the tokens. The scheme thrived in the difficult economic times of the 1930s and consolidated membership of the *Booksellers’ Association , since the bookseller had to be a member to claim his proportion of the value of the token. Similarly, the *Left Book Club and *Book Society ’s book club, the British counterparts to the *Book-of-the-Month Club and the *Literary...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...list of the Methodist Book and Publishing House; and Macmillan of Canada. The Great Depression, which lingered through much of the 1930s , hit Canada hard, particularly in the West and among immigrants and blue-collar workers. Publishers became more cautious about Canadian MSS, although textbooks and agency sales continued to return a profit. There was fresh competition from *book clubs , department stores, and cheap imports—so much activity that a new book trade journal, * Quill & Quire (1935– ) , was launched. The establishment by the federal government...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

... 1970s , when two more book clubs were created. Together they achieved a temporary market share of no less than 20 per cent. A characteristic feature of the Dutch book trade was the fixing of book prices, a collective agreement among publishers and retailers enforcing uniform pricing, with the intention of guaranteeing a varied supply of books ( cf . net book agreement ). One undesired effect, however, was overproduction. At the same time, new collective initiatives were adopted by the various branch organizations of the book trade. Book promotion was now...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...Vienna: the earliest extant map is dated 1719/20 . This was part of a programme of Westernizing innovations in the Ottoman capital which also led, less than ten years later, to the establishment of Müteferrika’s famous book-printing establishment, complete with Arabic types cut and cast locally and modelled on the neat Ottoman naskhī bookhand of the period. The first book, an Arabic–Turkish *Dictionary , was printed in 1729 in 500 copies and was followed by sixteen others in Ottoman Turkish, in *editions ranging from 500 to 1,200 copies, before the...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...with its past colonies, and successive Spanish governments saw in the book trade a vehicle for this. Thus, new international involvement, and the implementation of a fiscal regime more or less favourable for book exports to the region from the late 1910s to the 1930s , led Spain to become a power in Spanish-language publishing. By 1932 , Spain’s book exports had reached US $1,214,000 (Subercaseaux, 148). Similarly, French involvement in World War I also resulted in a decrease of book exports to Brazil, which in turn favoured Portuguese exports to its...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...with whether the establishment of a single written norm would lead to a unified spoken language. That process would not occur for another four centuries, when other media were introduced. The application of a Tuscan norm based on the literature of the Trecento (i.e. writers of whom the youngest was 30 years older than Chaucer) was facilitated by the example of Renaissance masterpieces such as the Cortegiano ( 1528 ). Written by the Mantuan career diplomat and papal nuncio Baldassarre Castiglione, the archetypal *conduct book went through several...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...capital goods (presses, *type , *composing sticks , and other materials) and even their paper, until the establishment of America’s first *paper mill outside Philadelphia in 1690 . Far from London, some Boston and Cambridge printers produced their own *almanacs and other cheap books as early as 1640 , when the *Bay Psalm Book became the first book printed in British North America. One of the eleven known surviving copies of the *Bay Psalm Book , printed by Stephen *Day at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1640. The Bodleian Library, University of...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different cities: thus, when an Osaka publisher put out a collected edition of Tang poetry in 1751 , it was found that this replicated a book...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...so too did demand for access to books. This resulted in the establishment of lending libraries and ‘reading societies’, which in turn stimulated the demand for more books. A lending library open to all-comers had been founded in Berlin as early as 1704 , but only somewhat later did these proliferate: Braunschweig had one in 1767 , Hanau 1774 , Munich 1774 , Schwäbisch Hall 1784 , Giessen 1785 , Stuttgart 1791 , Bamberg 1795 , and Breslau 1800 , for instance. One enterprising Leipzig book dealer, Sommer, sold bargain-priced ‘starter collections’ of up...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the first illustration in a Moscow-printed book. His Kanonnik of 1641 was the first Muscovite book to have a title-page. Under Tsar Alexei (r. 1645–76 ), the Printing House’s repertoire became more varied. Alexei, with aspirations to modernize Russia and to create an orderly and efficient realm, not only attempted to standardize church ritual and liturgical texts but instigated, in a limited way, secular printing. He commissioned codes of civil ( 1649 ) and canon law (completed in 1653 ), and a book on infantry warfare ( 1647 ), translated from the...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...was *stabbing and stab-stitching, running a thread through the whole text block near the spine edge. 4 Post-mechanization structures Bookbinding practices, like all other aspects of the book-production and distribution industries, underwent major changes during the 19 th century. Towards the end of the 18 th century, rising leather costs, combined with ever-growing book production, led to greater experimentation with cloth and paper as alternative materials. During the 1820s and 1830s , books were increasingly issued with cloth-covered boards, secured...

Hughes, Langston

Hughes, Langston   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
634 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Americans in a country that has systematically discriminated against them. He also penned works of nonfiction about African American history, books that the children's book establishment largely ignored until the 1960s and later. The First Book of Negroes ( 1952 ) tells of the rich history of black leaders such as Harriet Tubman , Ralph Bunche , and Louis Armstrong ; The First Book of Rhythms ( 1954 ) introduces children to the rhythms around them; and A Pictorial History of the Negro in America (written with Milton Meltzer in 1956 ) uses...

‘Quick and Garran’

‘Quick and Garran’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
591 words
Illustration(s):
1

...about the book's qualities, its authors, and the High Court's attitude towards historical material. Any account of Quick and Garran's influence must start with the status of its authors. Quick and Garran were both intimately involved with the process that led to establishment of the Commonwealth: the two of them had observed, or had participated in, the Convention Debates that settled on the text of the Constitution. Quick was a delegate in 1897–98 , and Garran was Secretary of the Drafting Committee at the same period. This alone lent their book an...

Fenn, Ellenor

Fenn, Ellenor   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
454 words
Illustration(s):
1

...talents to producing superior children's books as a public service, and she took this responsibility very seriously throughout her career. When her husband died in 1794 , she devoted more time and money to promoting charitable works in the local community, most notably the establishment of a Sunday school and another for needlework. See also Harris, John ; Marshall, John ; and More, Hannah . Andrea Immel Immel, Andrea , “ ‘Mistress of Infantine Language’: Lady Ellenor Fenn, Her Set of Toys and the ‘Education of Each Moment.’” Children's Literature 25...

Unterlinden

Unterlinden   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
359 words
Illustration(s):
1

... dedicated to St John the Baptist (patron of Unterlinden, who appeared on its seal ). Unterlinden was successively dependent on the Dominicans of Basel ( 1237 ), Fribourg ( 1268 ) and Colmar ( 1278 ). In 1269 , the chapel choir was consecrated by Albert the Great . The establishment benefited from the support of important families, including the Hattstatt, and possessed numerous rights in Upper Alsace , especially at Colmar, attested particularly by an inventory of 1394 . But Unterlinden's renown is due mainly to the spirituality that developed there...

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