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caryatid

A carved female figure, usually clad in long robes, serving as a column. They were first used in Greek architecture and the most famous caryatids are on the Erechtheum at Athens (c.421–406 ...

Caryatid

Caryatid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
144 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Sculpted female figure (equivalent to the male Atlantid or telamon) used in place of a column in Greek and Roman architecture. Non-architectural, caryatid figures occur as decorative elements in the minor arts of Greece, Etruria and Imperial Rome. The most notable are the stands supporting mirror-discs, usually dating from the 6th and 5th centuries bc . Caryatids were revived in 18th- and 19th-century architecture, and during this period were also used in furniture, often as bronze mounts. Caryatids in a pier-table, gilt wood, bronze and marble,...

Caryatid

Caryatid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
650 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Sculpted female figure (equivalent to the male Atlantid ) used in place of a column. Caryatids first appeared in ancient Greek architecture around the mid-6th century bc ; they were also used in Roman architecture, and these models were revived in the 18th and 19th centuries. Classical caryatids are always clothed; they may be dressed in the Ionic style and may have either a polos or a high-sided crown on their heads, or a wider drum representing a basket containing sacred objects. When dressed in Doric costume, however, caryatids bear the capital...

caryatid(e)

caryatid(e)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
118 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(e) ( pl . caryatid(e)s ) Carved, draped, straight, standing female figure (cora) , on its head an astragal (enriched with bead-and-reel ), ovolo (enriched with egg-and-dart ), and square abacus , used as a column substitute, supporting an entablature . Examples from Greek Antiquity include those of the south porch of the Erechtheion , Athens ( c .421–407 bc ), where six figures supported the roof. A similar draped female figure with a basket-like form over the head instead of the astragal-ovolo-abacus capital arrangement is a canephora ...

Osiride

Osiride   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
48 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Pier supporting an entablature or other load, with an engaged figure of the Ancient-Egyptian god Osiris attached to it, which, unlike a caryatid or a telamon , does not itself act as a support. J.Curl ( 2005 ) Osiride ( from Thebes...

Atlantid

Atlantid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
73 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [ atlantes ; atlas ; telamon ]. . Figure of a man used as a column to support an entablature in the architecture of classical antiquity (i.e. a male Caryatid ), and for decorative effect in European metalwork and furniture from the 16th century. Atlantid from the Odeon, Pompeii, 1st century ad Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY D. Hourde : Atlantes & Caryatides: Le fonctionnel et le sacre , A. Afrique Noire , cxxxi (Autumn 2004), pp....

Headrest

Headrest   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
718 words
Illustration(s):
2

...main groups: the Shona–Tsonga complex and the Zulu–Swazi complex. The headrest form of the Shona–Tonga complex is generally quite small and has a bilobed oval base with the thin horizontal and upward curving cross-piece supported by a caryatid of some decorative embellishment. In Northern and Central Shona headrests, the caryatid is composed of flat cut-out triangles with circles between them so that the whole has a form reminiscent of the female figure. The flat cut-out shapes are further embellished with relief patterns recalling the keloid scars used to...

Mirror

Mirror   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,092 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In addition to various columnar and plant shapes forming the support, human figures in the round, known as caryatids, are used . The number of pieces joined to form the caryatid mirror varies from two units, the disc and the figure-base, to as many as fifteen. Female caryatids used as supports on mirrors may be either nude or semi-nude girls standing on an animal or simple round base or women garbed in chiton (tunics) or peplos (outer robes). Male caryatids (Atlantids), either nude or wrapped in a large cloak, are also employed as supports. By the late 5th...

Boizot, Louis-Simon

Boizot, Louis-Simon (9 Oct 1743)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
248 words
Illustration(s):
1

...he eventually became known for his portrait sculpure, the first years of Boizot's career were dedicated primarily to decorative sculpture, such as the model for the elaborate allegorical gilt-bronze clock known as the ‘Avignon’ clock ( c. 1770 ; London , Wallace), some caryatids for one of the chimney-pieces at the château of Fontainebleau (marble and bronze, 1772 ; now Versailles, Château) and various works for the château of Louveciennes, Yvelines. In 1773 he was appointed artistic director of the sculpture studio at the Sèvres porcelain...

Eleusis

Eleusis   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
926 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2nd century ad ; Eleusis Mus.); a series of kernoi (unusual ritual vases; Eleusis Mus.); an exquisitely carved ram’s head from the gutter of the Peisistratid Telesterion (late 6th century bc , Eleusis Mus.); and the fine capitals and colossal caryatids from the Lesser Propylaia (Eleusis Mus.; one caryatid in Cambridge , Fitzwilliam). F. Noack : Eleusis, die baugeschichtliche Entwicklung des Heiligtumes (Berlin, 1927) G. E. Mylonas : Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (Princeton, 1962) D. G. Giraud : E kuria eisodos tou ierou tes Eleusinos ...

Goujon, Jean

Goujon, Jean (b c.1510)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,009 words
Illustration(s):
1

...way, Goujon's four caryatids supporting the gallery of the Salle des Caryatides in the Louvre (stone, 1550–51 ; in situ but restored; see fig.), though derived from those of the Erechtheion, Athens, have a supple and voluptuous grace typical of French 16th-century taste. They are his only documented sculptures in the round. In all these works Goujon rejected the classicizing ‘purity’ of the Fountain of the Innocents, following instead the example of the school of Fontainebleau. Jean Goujon: stone caryatids (1550–51), Salle des Caryatides, Musée du Louvre,...

Sambin, Hugues

Sambin, Hugues (c.1520)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,142 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for the chapel of the Salle des Pas-Perdus and a small door for the Chambre du Scrin. The screen of the chapel is decorated with garlands and Burgundian foliage of the choux frisés type, as well as chimeras and caryatids (Dijon, Mus. B.A.): the chimeras derive, in fact, from a motif engraved by Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau , and the elegant caryatids also closely resemble Du Cerceau's engravings. The door to the Chambre du Scrin (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.) is also notable for its elegance and restraint, which is very different from the heaviness and complexity of the...

Weisweiler, Adam

Weisweiler, Adam (1744)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
340 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of exquisite gilt-bronze ornaments, some of which have been attributed to Pierre Gouthière . Undulating ribbon and leaf mouldings, friezes depicting a combination of trumpeting fauns, goats, cornucopias, birds and rinceaux motifs, as well as vertical supports in the form of caryatids holding baskets on their heads, are frequently found on his pieces. Weisweiler's business survived the French Revolution and prospered during the Directoire and Empire periods. He received commissions from the Bonaparte family and collaborated with the bronzeworker ...

Nike

Nike   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
495 words
Illustration(s):
1

... during a series of excavations conducted by Charles Champoiseau . The statue was taken to Paris , where it underwent restoration to replace the wings and parts of the drapery, which were found in fragments. It was first exhibited at the Musée du Louvre in the Salle des Caryatides. In 1866 another campaign of excavations was organized on the island, but this proved fruitless. Champoiseau himself returned to Samothrace in 1879 and found the fragments of a rostrate prow, which had served as the pedestal of the statue. The fragments were sent to ...

Brustolon, Andrea

Brustolon, Andrea (20 July 1662)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
490 words
Illustration(s):
1

... St Innocent ( Hamburg , Mus. Kst & Gew.), carved in boxwood and ebony, was delivered to Polcenigo, Bishop of Feltre. In 1722 the artist was working on the altar of Our Lady of Sorrows for the church of Dosoledo di Comelico. In about 1724 he executed the tabernacle with caryatids and putti for the parish church of Cortina d’Ampezzo. Meanwhile, in 1723 , he had signed the contract for the great wooden altarpiece of the Death of St Francis Xavier (Belluno, Mus. Civ.) for S Ignazio at Fasola di Belluno. This was commissioned from him by the noble Miari...

Louis XIV style

Louis XIV style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
413 words
Illustration(s):
2

...collected since the beginning of the 17th century, was displayed on brackets, massed on top of cabinets or used to decorate entire rooms or Porcelain Cabinets. In all media, ornament included such Classical motifs as scrolls and volutes, palmettes, grotesques, satyrs’ masks and caryatids as well as bands of arabesque strapwork. A lighter note appeared c. 1710 , reflecting the influence of the ornamentalists Jean B erain , Claude Audran III ( 1658–1734 ) and Pierre Le Pautre ( 1660–1744 ). Such new elements as lambrequins, grotesques, putti, torches,...

cathedra

cathedra   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
430 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the sculpted cathedras especially prevalent in southern Italy , with decorations rich in variants taken from various sources. Often supported by real or imaginary animals (elephants in the cathedra by the sculptor Romuald in the cathedral of Canosa, lions in that of Calvi, caryatids or atlantes in that of the Basilica of San Nicola at Bari ), they generally refer to the struggle between Good – represented by the person of the Bishop who, by his presence alone, subjects demonic and negative forces – and Evil . From the Gothic period, cathedras were...

Propylon

Propylon   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
657 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to a lower level. A novel plan was employed in the so-called Lesser Propylaia at Eleusis ( c. 54 bc ). This had a paved forecourt (10.35×9.80 m) flanked by walls with engaged Ionic columns. The outer porch had two prostyle Corinthian columns, while the inner had two caryatids; the entablatures of both porches combined Doric and Ionic features. The entrance was flanked by niches, those on the outside perhaps for statues, the inner ones containing fountains. Propylon Sanctuary of Poseidon, Sounion, 440s bc , plan: (a) propylon; (b) temple; (c) stoas;...

Bed

Bed   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
738 words
Illustration(s):
1

...architects. Although some examples survive in the Late Gothic style, such beds were essentially products of the Renaissance. Such designers as Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau I ( see Du cerceau , (1) and hans Vredeman de vries applied the full Mannerist vocabulary of strapwork, caryatids and grotesques to fourposter bed designs. Posts often took the form of columns and were carried on lion-paw feet or griffin monopodiae. In England elaborate headboards carved with arcading or fielded panels reached to the tester and replaced the back posts. Front posts were...

Riesener, Jean-Henri

Riesener, Jean-Henri (4 July 1734;)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
896 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Manor, Bucks, NT) and a console table (London, priv. col.) from the Cabinet de la Méridienne at Versailles, and such majestic pieces as Marie-Antoinette’s secrétaire and lacquered commode ( New York , Met.) or the lacquered secrétaire with doors decorated with gilt-bronze caryatids ( 1785 ; Malibu, CA , Getty Mus.). Furniture decorated with simple lozenge-shaped marquetry, as is, for example, Marie-Antoinette’s cylinder-top desk (Paris, Louvre) from the Tuileries, also belongs to this period, as does the sober, mahogany furniture with restrained...

Berain, Jean

Berain, Jean (4 June 1640)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
825 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(Stockholm, Nmus.) for several rooms in the Hôtel de Mailly-Nesles, Paris, carried out by André Camot ( d 1689 ), which feature in the Nouveau livre d’ornements de plafonds ( 1690 ). These designs show a dense arrangement of exotic animals and fantastic creatures, caryatids, herms and female masks. The ceiling designed for Marie-Anne de Bourbon dowager Princesse de Conti ( 1666–1739 ), for the pavillon des bains in her hôtel in Versailles in 1691 shows by contrast a more delicate and refined composition. Berain’s ornamental style can also be...

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