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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, Carleen M. Hutchins, Daniel W. Martin, Stephen Birkett, Anne Beetem Acker, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Robert W. Pyle, Thomas D. Rossing, and Johan Sundberg

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
23,637 words
Illustration(s):
20

...force must lie within a certain range. Below the lower limit the Helmholtz motion gives way to one in which the string slips relative to the bow more than once per cycle, producing what is usually described as ‘surface sound’. Above the upper limit the arrival of the Helmholtz corner is insufficient to ‘unstick’ the string from the bow, the note ceases to be exactly repetitive from cycle to cycle, and the result is no longer a musical tone but a raucous ‘crunch’. To bow nearer to the bridge ( sul ponticello ) the player must press harder and control the force...

Violin

Violin   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Peter Cooke, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
22,677 words
Illustration(s):
10

...in a number of basic features from their modern counterparts. The neck projects straight out from the body so that its upper edge continues the line of the belly’s rim. The neck is affixed by nails (or occasionally screws) through the top-block rather than mortised into it as in modern instruments. The fingerboard is wedge-shaped and shorter than the modern fingerboard. Bridges were cut to a more open pattern and were very slightly lower. The bass-bar was shorter and lighter and the soundpost thinner. Violins (and violas) lacked chin rests. The tone of these...

Organ

Organ   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
67,540 words
Illustration(s):
11

...restoration workshops at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, has added to the knowledge of the Italian organ and to the preservation of its heritage. 11 . The organ of J.S. Bach. In many ways the organs of Bach’s main area of activity, Thuringia, Weimar, and Leipzig, showed the same kind of influences as his music: a basic German traditionalism tempered with French colour and Italian fluency. Neither the organ nor the music was so local in origin or so independent of other regional ideas as was usually the case elsewhere, even in the mid-18th century....

European American music

European American music   Reference library

Philip V. Bohlman, Stephen Erdely, Leon Janikian, Christina Jaremko, Ain Haas, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Mark Levy, Philip V. Bohlman, Robert C. Metil, Jesse A. Johnston, Julien Olivier, Stephen D. Winick, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Stephen d. Winick, Philip V. Bohlman, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Stephen Erdely, Lynn M. Hooker, Mick Moloney, Stephen D. Winick, Marcello Sorce Keller, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Katherine Brucher, Carol Silverman, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Chris Goertzen, Mark Forry, Janet Sturman, Philip V. Bohlman, Marcello Sorce Keller, Robert B. Klymasz, and Denis Hlynka

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
33,627 words
Illustration(s):
6

...for Bulgarian young adults have developed in several cities, independent of church- or community-sponsored activities. Rather than dancing to live music at a community event, in these groups dancing is done to recorded music, as an aerobic activity/class in a dance studio. The dances are usually taught by graduates from one of the Bulgarian state-sponsored choreography schools. This phenomenon of folk dancing to recorded music, as an aerobic activity, has also arisen in Bulgaria recently. 7. Czech and Slovak American music. The history of Czech American and...

Jazz

Jazz   Reference library

Mark Tucker, Travis A. Jackson, and Travis A. Jackson

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
30,073 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the melodic options for improvised lines. The titles of Coleman's albums sought to reflect the spirit of innovation driving his activity: Tomorrow is the Question! The New Music of Ornette Coleman (Cont., 1959 ), The Shape of Jazz to Come (Atl., 1959 ), and especially Free Jazz (Atl., 1960 ), in which a double quartet collectively improvises, at times producing dense textures, jarring dissonance, and agitated rhythmic activity. While some hailed Free Jazz as a liberating manifesto, opening a new world of possibilities for adventurous musicians working...

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