You are looking at 1-20 of 74 entries  for:

  • All: bare life x
  • Social sciences x
  • Results with images only x
clear all

View:

Overview

bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Jewish Diaspora

Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,037 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trade because they could find kinspeople at long distances who they knew would not behave opportunistically. Bibliography Ayal, Eliezer B. , and Barry R. Chiswick . The Economics of the Diaspora Revisted . Economic Development and Cultural Change 31 (1983), 861–875. Baer, Yitzhak . A History of the Jews in Christian Spain . 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1966. Baron, Salo Wittmayer . A Social and Religious History of the Jews . 2d ed. New York, 1952. A fundamental work on Jewish history with an impressive bibliography. The first edition, 1937, is also...

Poor Relief

Poor Relief   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,468 words
Illustration(s):
1

...rights. Before the state welfare programs of the twentieth century, poor relief was the chief mechanism for dealing with poverty. Despite its many guises and purposes it rarely aspired to do more than relieve destitution—to provide a safety net by which the poor could maintain a bare subsistence. However, it dealt with the poor in a variety of ways and often sought to categorize them so as to treat them differently according to type. Much of this approach had rational economic intentions; but poor relief was never purely an economic instrument, and a society's...

Business Cycles

Business Cycles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,124 words
Illustration(s):
2

...1890s broke out in Great Britain in November 1890 with the Barings crisis. Financial difficulties in Argentina meant that the British public became wary of Argentinean stock. When John & Francis & Co. Barings issued a £10 million loan in 1890 for public works in Buenos Aires, it proved a failure with 90 percent of the stock left with the bank. By November the bank was forced to suspend payments. The Bank of England raised the bank rate and committed itself to winding up the affairs of Barings & Co. with the help of the Bank of France. Although such...

Forests and Deforestation

Forests and Deforestation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,242 words
Illustration(s):
2

...vegetation on the mountains and in the marshes, “so that the birds and beasts fled away” and all kinds of grains could then be planted. Mencius personally viewed the continuation of China's war against the trees when he saw “the trees of Niu mountain … hewn down” and therefore “bare and stripped.” In the Mahabharata, the Sanskrit Hindu epic, the ancient Aryan heroes Krsna, Vasudeva, and Arjuna help the fire god devour the great Khandava forest in northern India and make sure none of the fleeing creatures survive. The heroes want the forest cleared to assure their...

Leather Industry

Leather Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,771 words
Illustration(s):
1

...were accompanied by the use of new machinery, such as the hand-operated knife (to split skins) invented by William Powers in 1768 , the endless band-knife machine (to split hides) invented by William Newberry in 1808 , and the spiral-bladed cylinder knives invented by John Baring in 1828 . Technical change contributed not only to the decline of rural leather production but also to the increase in the scale of production in semiurban areas. As early as 1858 , tanneries such as Nickols's Joppa in Leeds, United Kingdom, used steam engines and more than five...

Mexico

Mexico   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,267 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 3.1 238 1992 89.6 2.2 5,112 −0.2 −3 1999 95.8 0.9 5,817 1.6 14 (1)Population based on INEGI (1985). (2)The estimate of GDP per capita 1519 is pure speculation; it assumes that 400 1990 international dollars would represent a bare subsistence. (3)1630 and 1700 GDP per capita estimates are set equal to 1800 to embody the assumption that per capita GDP did not change much in the colonial era. (See Coatsworth, 1988.) (4)The 1800, 1845, 1860, and 1877 GDP per capita figures are based on...

Costa Rica

Costa Rica   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
15,509 words
Illustration(s):
1

...show, during the last 20 years, there has developed a large gap in income between one sector of the population who live at first-world standards (levels of consumption, private bilingual education, travel, etc), and other sectors with diminishing capacities to purchase even the bare necessities. 1. Basic Sexological Premises A. Character of Gender Roles The situation of women's sexualities in this small country reflects some unique and particular traits in the national gender social arrangements, and it also reflects larger universal trends, which affect...

Morocco

Morocco   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
10,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...two years to collect them. In Morocco, twins are considered to be baraka (good fortune); if Hamadi's daughters left, people might conclude that good fortune had left Hamadi's house. To add to Hamadi's woes, Fatima issued a final warning. If Hamadi divorced her, she would march bare-breasted to the weekly market. This left him badly shaken. Things got worse. One of Fatima's brothers had married Hamadi's cousin. He announced that if there was to be bad blood between the two families, he would divorce his wife. Hamadi's mother complained that the money Hamadi...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
61,965 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of which speaks to written materials or visual representations created and held by the accused alone, exclusively for personal use. The latter includes visual recordings created by or depicting the accused that do not depict unlawful sexual activity and are for private use only ( Baer , 2002 ). Court proceedings on obscenity cases have been a common occurrence in Canada, and the courts, rather than legislators, appear to be the ultimate arbiters who weigh research evidence and public opinion in such matters. The development of phone sex lines, computer sex...

Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,645 words
Illustration(s):
2

...took place after 1900 , thanks to a roughly hundredfold increase of fossil energy inputs to field farming. This achievement profoundly changed the global availability of food. In 1750 , the average global crop output (before storage and distribution losses) did not cover even bare subsistence food needs. Today's global harvest produces more than enough food for the world's population, but a substantial productivity gap still divides the average agricultural performances of rich and poor countries. Although North America and Japan have a surfeit of food energy...

Diamond Industry

Diamond Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,725 words
Illustration(s):
1

...close partnership between Joaquim Pedro Quintela , the chief contractor between 1791 and 1817 , and another Dutch merchant and banker, John Hope , who acted as the main commercial agent in northern Europe. A parallel partnership between Hope and the British banker Alexander Baring was instrumental in granting the Portuguese Crown the extensive Anglo-Dutch Diamond Loan of 1802 , whereby the government in Lisbon mortgaged the Brazilian diamonds to repay the debt contracted on account of the wars against France in 1795 and against Spain in 1801 . The Napoleonic...

Theater Arts

Theater Arts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,160 words
Illustration(s):
1

...difficult to control and disperse. Except in the largest theaters and in opera houses, electricity has not been extensively incorporated into shifting; instead, the costs of labor in the twentieth century encouraged a minimalist aesthetic, first expressed in the revival of the bare stage, then widely incorporated into thrust arrangements with the audience on three sides of the playing space. This concept tends to reduce scenery to a few pieces of furniture and almost eliminates the costs of building as well as shifting it; successive locales are facilitated...

Levant

Levant   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
18,673 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Society and Politics . Princeton, 1980. Contains a number of enlightening monographic studies of important subjects in the political economy of mandatory Palestine: The Office and Functions of the Village Mukhtar by Gabriel Baer ; Administrative Policy in Rural Palestine: The Impact of British Norms on Arab Community Life, 1920–1948 by Ylana Miller ; Legal Protection and Circumvention of Rights for Cultivators in Mandatory Palestine by Kenneth Stein ; Peasants into Workmen: Internal Labor Migration and the Arab Village Community under the Mandate by...

Mexico

Mexico   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
11,207 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., ed., Antologia de la sexualidad humana . México. Díaz Loving, R. 1988. Desenredando la semántica del amor. In: La psicología social de México: 1988 . México: Proceedings of the Congess of Social Psicology. Dillon, S. 1997 (January 22). How to scandalize a politician: Bare a love affair. The New York Times , p. A4. Eskala, E. , et al. 1992. La adolescente embarazada y su relación de pareja. Psicología social de México III. Proceedings of the Congess of Social Psycology . México. Falicov, C. J. 1982. Mexican families. In: M. McGoldrick , J. K....

China

China   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
31,201 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the journal International Security , demographers Valerie Hudson and Andrea Den Boer estimate that China will have between 29 million and 33 million unmarried males ages 15 to 34 by the year 2020 . Other estimates put the number of young, unmarried men, of guang guan (“bare branches” or “barren sticks”) in 2020 at 40 million. That number equals the combined female population of Taiwan and South Korea. The probable main but not sole cause, according to Chinese researcher Chu Junhong in a 2001 report in the Population and Development Review , is...

China

China   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,263 words
Illustration(s):
2

...uses, but the system as a whole remained highly distorted. As market forces grew, they put increasing pressure on policy makers to address deep-seated institutional distortions. Remarkably policy makers were generally able to address critical economic problems and provide the bare essentials necessary to sustain growth. With reform China's GDP growth accelerated to 9.7 percent per annum from 1978 to 1998 . Since population growth declined to 1.3 percent, per capita GDP growth doubled from the pre-reform 4 percent to 8 percent between 1978 and 1998 . As...

Thailand

Thailand   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,958 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with a formal structure (Allyn 1991 ). Despite the many developments of a gay identity in Thailand, the average Thai gay man lives his gay life separately from the other parts of his life. Allyn ( 1991 ) speculates that this way of life is sufficient for many, as many Thai gay men have expressed satisfaction. Allyn further suggests that Thai people are trained since childhood to accept their lot in life. Similar to the way the perceived transience of gender helps many Thai women to accept their role (see Section 1, Basic Sexological Premises), Thai...

National Income Accounts

National Income Accounts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
18,694 words
Illustration(s):
3

...is difficult to isolate and explain such key processes as savings and investment. Instead, imagine the other extreme: a desert island with only one inhabitant—the proverbial shipwrecked sailor. The Fable of the Shipwrecked Sailor To begin, life is very hard. The only way the sailor can survive is to catch fish with his bare hands. It is a slow, difficult, process, and only by working long hours can he catch enough to stay alive. Unless he can change this pattern, he is condemned to a permanent subsistence existence at a very low level. How might his condition...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...anywhere in the world. ( End of update by K. R. Wylie )] E. Pornography and Erotica Kevan R. Wylie There has been a general relaxation within England and Wales over erotica and nudity when displayed within newspapers and on television. There has been a trend away from the “page 3” bare-breasted girl in the tabloid press, in part fueled by complaints from feminists, but also because of increased availability of such material elsewhere. Hard pornography cannot be shown on British television, nor can scenes of an erect penis or bondage. Among European nations, only...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
16,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...by F. A. Sadeghpour )] Little girls of all ages are kept well covered. In many provincial towns, girl babies are hidden completely under their mother's chador on the street. Toddler girls wear chadors often with only a pacifier protruding from its folds. Little boys are often bare from the waist down, obviating the need for diapers outside. At any age, males may urinate openly in the street or at the roadside. Older males often seek the partial privacy of a tree or wall. Most, however, orient themselves in a way so as to avoid the sacrilege of urinating...

View: