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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Euphronios

Euphronios (c. 520–c. 500bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...interest in anatomy. Euphronios ’ paintings generally depict heroic scenes or scenes of Athenian daily life. His depictions of Herakles are especially memorable. Louvre G 103 shows Herakles Wrestling with Antaeus . His right arm is under the giant’s left armpit, his left around his neck, hands gripped together tightly. Euphronios has brilliantly contrasted the hero’s neat hair and beard and tense profile with the giant’s dishevelled hair and beard, bared teeth and helpless frontal pose, probably deliberately juxtaposing Herakles’ straining right foot with...

Exekias

Exekias (c. 540–c. 520bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,693 words
Illustration(s):
2

...). The splendidly dressed pair sit opposite each other intent on the game, with their shields framing the picture. Inscriptions provide their names and the results of their throws (Achilles 4, Ajax 3), but, even without these, it is clear that Achilles will win. Thus, while the bare-headed Ajax hunches forward tensely, gripping his two spears tightly together, Achilles sits up straighter and seems grander in his tall, plumed helmet. The subject was new and Exekias ’ version was copied by his contemporaries and immediate successors. Although Achilles’...

Heracles

Heracles   Reference library

Albert Schachter

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,703 words
Illustration(s):
1

...twin: the bare bones of the story already in Homer, Il. 14. 323–4). Legends arose early of his epic feats, and they were added to constantly throughout antiquity. These stories may have played a part in the transformation of Heracles from hero (i.e. a deity of mortal origin, who, after death, exercised power over a limited geographical area, his influence residing in his mortal remains) to god (a deity, immortal, whose power is not limited geographically). Outside the cycle of the Labours (see below), the chief events of Heracles’ life were as follows:...

Tanagra

Tanagra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,513 words
Illustration(s):
2

...appear to have been Dionysos and Hermes, whose cult statue was the work of the Athenian sculptor Kalamis; a temple at nearby Soros dedicated to the mother of the gods was excavated in 2002 . The only ancient building in Tanagra readily identifiable today is the theatre, the bare outline of which can be discerned in the south-west sector of the city. To the north, the ruins of the gymnasium have been identified, famous in Pausanias’ time for housing a painting depicting Korinna tying her hair with a ribbon for the victory she won over Pindar at ...

Terence

Terence   Reference library

Peter George McCarthy Brown

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...never used one to tell the spectators about the background to the plot. It has been suggested that he preferred to exploit effects of surprise rather than irony and to involve his audience more directly in the emotions of the characters (most notably in Hecyra , where it is laid bare how women are misunderstood, maligned, and mistreated by men). But the scope for ironic effect varies from play to play; in some cases he includes essential background information in the mouths of the characters at an early stage. It seems more likely that he dispensed with...

Atreus, House of

Atreus, House of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,733 words
Illustration(s):
1

...offering from Clytemnestra to his father's grave; Clytemnestra had had a dream that appeared to predict her own death. In order to gain entry to the house, a disguised Orestes brings feigned news of his own death. He kills Aegisthus, yet hesitates to strike Clytemnestra after she bares her breast to remind him of his obligation to her as a mother. Pylades reminds him that he must carry out the god's command ( 900–902 ), but as soon as he does so, Orestes is pursued by his mother's avenging deities, the Erinyes, from the chthnonic generation of gods that preceded...

Crafts and Artisans

Crafts and Artisans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,395 words
Illustration(s):
1

...god is often portrayed at his forge completing the new armor for Achilles with Thetis, Achilles’ mother, standing by—as depicted, for example, in the interior of the Berlin Foundry Cup. An attribute of Hephaestus in Greek art is the exomis, or short chiton, worn with one shoulder bare—the typical garb of workers. For all his admired work, Hephaestus, like his mortal counterparts, was seen as marginalized, an outsider among the pantheon of gods. Most notably, he is represented as lame. Vases also depict Hephaestus on muleback, unable to walk on his own, as he,...

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (356–323bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,339 words
Illustration(s):
3

...323 bce , not yet thirty-three years old. The wars of succession among Alexander's marshals wiped out the Argead dynasty of Macedonia and fragmented the empire into a growing number of rival Hellenistic kingdoms. In his own lifetime, Alexander was portrayed brandishing in his bare hand the lightning bolt of Zeus. By deeds and divine descent, by doing as much or more as any of his Homeric heroes, by turning the drift of Western civilization back east as not even Philip could have done, Alexander claimed divinity. We may justly demur and decry the man a...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
8,688 words
Illustration(s):
4

...restorations commissioned by Evans from Émile Gilliéron and his son have profoundly influenced the understanding of the fragmentary paintings from the Palace at Knossos. The fairly well-restored Sacred Grove Fresco ( Herakleion , Archaeological Museum) depicts white-fleshed, bare-breasted women wearing flounced skirts dancing in an olive grove; they are observed by white-fleshed courtly women seated under the trees and by a separate red all-male audience. This quickly and impressionistically painted early miniature fresco of circa 1650–1500 bce (MM...

Barbarians

Barbarians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,281 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Throughout imperial times barbarians appeared on state-sponsored monuments, coins, and luxury items. Although attributes were occasionally used to identify specific peoples, barbarians were usually shown either as generic easterners wearing loose trousers and tunics or as generic bare-chested northerners wearing tight trousers and either torques or mantles. Both types, which seldom resembled the actual appearance of the groups they represented, were given long hair and beards. Augustan and Julio-Claudian art always indicated Rome's power over barbarians but...

Pompeii

Pompeii   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
11,282 words
Illustration(s):
9

...complements of sculpture, whereas Pompeii’s larger temples were comparatively bare. In the small Temple of Zeus Meilichios, focus of a pre-Roman Greek cult, were found two cult images, life-size terracotta statues of Jupiter and Juno (1st century ad ). The Temple of Isis held an acrolithic cult statue of Isis (untraced), another Egyptianizing statue of the goddess, a statue of Dionysus with a Panther , and numerous other works. The Temple of Fortuna Augusta contained life-size images of private citizens: an unidentified man, the so-called ‘ Cicero ’,...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
90,898 words
Illustration(s):
41

...and preserved in fissures in the rocks. Most of these figurines were of clay, though some were of bronze. Terracotta figures representing worshippers are rarely over 200 mm high. The women characteristically have bell-shaped skirts, short-sleeved tops that either leave the breasts bare or have very low necklines, and various elaborate hairstyles, tall headdresses or hats. While some are rather roughly made with pinched, birdlike faces, others have finely modelled facial features and detailing of clothing and coiffure. The male figures often wear a loincloth and...

Etruscan

Etruscan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
12,044 words
Illustration(s):
4

...in chitons and cloaks. All are inscribed with the words ‘I belong to Mother Cel here’ (see Colonna, 1976–7, pls 1–4). Cel is an Etruscan name, and the goddess is probably the equivalent of Mother Earth. On a mirror from Populonia ( c. 450–400 bc ; Florence , Mus. Archeol.) a bare-headed warrior with a barbarian face turns to hurl a huge rock at his pursuer. The name of the latter is Laran; the rock-thrower is Cels-clan (‘son of Cel’). In Greek iconography, warriors whose weapons are rocks are commonly the giants, sons of Earth; the scene on the mirror...

Coins

Coins   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,276 words
Illustration(s):
2

...detailed and three-dimensional treatment, and unusual angles, such as three-quarter views, might also be used. In the 2nd century ad new ways of depicting the emperor were introduced to express their different ideals or aspirations. Trajan was sometimes represented as a hero, bare-chested and wearing only a cloak. His successor Hadrian established the imperial fashion of wearing a beard; like its brief adoption under Nero, this was presumably the mark of a philhellene. Marcus Aurelius adopted the long philosopher’s beard as a symbol of his adherence to...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
30,282 words
Illustration(s):
11

...most famous statue was the Aphrodite of Knidos (Roman copy; Rome, Vatican , Mus. Pio-Clementino), which showed the goddess emerging from the bath. Bronze statuettes show her thus, or with a seashell, hiding her nudity, drying her hair, crouching, binding her sandal, draped or baring one leg. Lysippos’ large bronze athletes are thought to have influenced the many statuettes of athletes that survive. Lysippos was the court portraitist for Alexander the Great, and his portrait of the ruler, though based on the tradition of heroic standing figures, is a...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...coated with a layer of mortar made from lime and marble powder, which gave it the appearance of marble. Its fragility meant that it could not be used to produce projecting features, while the mortar coating would obscure any elaborate carving. It thus corresponded perfectly to the bare severity of the Doric order, in which mouldings were rare and adorned only with decorations painted on to the stucco. The fragility of poros also explains the structure of the Doric doorway. It had no jambs; instead, the sill was merely slipped into grooves cut in the bases of the...

Pottery

Pottery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
83,455 words
Illustration(s):
27

...if ever, figure-painted: bowls, one-handlers (a low cup with a single handle), stemmed plates, feeders, amphoriskoi, bolsals and Rheneia cups. The glaze used on Attic Black-glaze pottery is generally similar to that used on figure-painted ware, although some shapes, such as the ‘bare-bottom’ lekanides, were simply dipped and were not of such high quality; these shapes seem to have been confined mostly to Attica . The use of reserving and added purple and white resembles that on figure-painted pottery. One of the most striking means of decoration was the use...

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