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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,791 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the eye is led away from the house. This commonplace phenomenon prompted two mid-sixteenth-century humanists, Jacopo Bonfadio and Bartolomeo Taegio , to invent the term third nature (terza natura) to describe the relationship of fine gardens to their surrounding in both agrarian and uncultivated land (see Hunt, 1996b ). They almost certainly coined the phrase with an eye on Cicero's identification of the culturated landscape in his treatise De natura deorum , as “second nature”; in its turn, this world of fields, human habitations, and infrastructure...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,487 words
Illustration(s):
3

...agriculture entailed the coercion and transformation of the natural world into a planned and regulated order. As agriculture produced a nature of systematic, standard design, so in art the natural world became correspondingly articulable through fixed schematic forms. As settled agrarian civilizations grew fiercely territorial, moreover, human figures came to require siting: Sumerian and Egyptian vases introduced the ruled groundline, and thus the defined image field: figures now are set in their “own,” limited space. These developments—symbolism, groundline,...

Geography and trade

Geography and trade   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,572 words
Illustration(s):
3

...spectacular form of this phenomenon is found in the great river systems, fed by heavy rain and snow in remote highlands: the Nile, the Tigris–Euphrates, the Amu, the Syr and the Zarafshan. Such river systems are the basis for the vast irrigation schemes that have supported the agrarian civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Transoxiana for millennia. An equally critical role is played by innumerable but widely scattered oases. Small oases are often spring-fed, but the most important ones (e.g. Isfahan, Damascus or the Oued Draa in Morocco) are watered either...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

John Dixon Hunt and Mara Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,762 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as the eye is led away from the house. This commonplace phenomenon prompted two mid-sixteenth-century humanists, Jacopo Bonfadio and Bartolomeo Taegio, to invent the term “third nature” ( terza natura ) to describe the relationship of fine gardens to their surroundings in both agrarian and uncultivated land (see Hunt, 1996 , Garden and Grove ). They almost certainly coined the phrase with an eye on Cicero’s identification of the culturated landscape in his treatise De natura deorum , as “second nature”; in its turn, this world of fields, human habitations,...

Bearden, Romare

Bearden, Romare (1911–1988)   Reference library

Jacqueline Francis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

...heroes, and ministers—in his pictures of the 1940s. Nevertheless, if the backdrop for this early work is a Utopian, color-blind world, Bearden’s later production contains countless associative flora, fauna, and inorganic emblems that tie it to black ethno-cultural spaces: the agrarian American South, the industrialized American North, the modern performance hall somewhere in the Western hemisphere, and the Caribbean tropics. Bearden extracted potent symbols from their original contexts in popular and art magazines, academic texts, calendars, and newspapers,...

Helladic

Helladic   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
6,287 words
Illustration(s):
2

...were buried in cist graves, underground chambers or clefts in the rocks. During the eh iii period several waves of destruction swept the mainland. Not all sites suffered, but settlements were abandoned, overseas contacts were forsaken, and the culture regressed to a purely agrarian economy. Changes in pottery coincided with the introduction of the potter’s wheel, and a new apsidal type of house prevailed. Both the upheaval and the new cultural elements are often attributed to the invasion of proto-Greek-speaking peoples. By the end of eh iii there were...

Indonesia, Republic of

Indonesia, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...responsible for local security and the repair and maintenance of public facilities. Usually the only truly urban sections of these cities were the quarters occupied by foreign traders, notably the Chinese. Historically, Indonesian political and cultural life was focused on the agrarian-based kraton (palace) or holy town. The core comprised the kraton and the main temples surrounded by the houses of the nobility and religious leaders. Traditionally, the royal cities comprised a series of settlements clustered around the seat of government of the local...

Mughal

Mughal   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,052 words
Illustration(s):
2

...ancestors, the Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, especially their luxury books ( see Illustration , §V, D ) and jades ( see Jade ). These Timurid wares provided prototypes for Mughal wares, which were also inscribed with the names and titles of the emperors. I. Habib : The Agrarian System of Mughal India (Bombay, 1963) B. G asgoigne : The Great Moghuls (London, 1971; R 1987) A. J. Qaisar : The Indian Response to European Technology and Culture, 1498–1707 (Delhi, 1982) T. Raychaudhari and I. Habib , eds.: The Cambridge Economic History of India , i...

Landscape

Landscape   Reference library

Christopher Fitter, Holmes Rolston III, Daniel Joseph Nadenicek, and Allen A. Carlson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...agriculture entailed the coercion and transformation of the natural world into a planned and regulated order. As agriculture produced a nature of systematic, standard design, so in art the natural world became correspondingly articulable through fixed schematic forms. As settled agrarian civilizations grew fiercely territorial, moreover, human figures came to require siting: Sumerian and Egyptian vases introduced the ruled groundline, and thus the defined image field: figures now are set in their “own,” limited space. These developments—symbolism, groundline,...

Roman Republic and Empire

Roman Republic and Empire   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as status symbols and as valuable tools for self-promotion. In the 2nd and 1st centuries bc the rise of acute class consciousness and unrestrained individualism caused a series of social disruptions. The dislocation of small farmers from their land led to uprisings followed by agrarian reforms. The revolt of Rome’s Italian allies in the Social War ( 91–87 bc ) culminated with the enfranchisement of the entire peninsula. During these agitations, individuals grappled for personal power: governors exploited provinces; generals acted as warlords with private...

History

History   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,377 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with China, leading to a great enrichment of the resources available to Iranian artists. On the social and economic level, the picture is darker. The Mongol commitment to the nomadic–pastoral traditions of Inner Asia discouraged efforts to restore the infrastructure of urban and agrarian life, damaged so severely during the decades of conquest. Moreover, the Mongols dragged in with them great numbers of Turco-Mongol tribesmen, enough to alter permanently the ethnic make-up of Iran and Anatolia and to shift vast tracts from an agricultural to a nomadic–pastoral...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...shaped stones). The new material was also used to alleviate Rome’s housing crisis. In the 2nd century bc , Rome was an overcrowded city of twisting alleys and dangerous apartment blocks, frequently threatened by fire, flooding or collapse. According to Cicero ( On the Agrarian Law II.xxxv.96) the city was ridiculed by the Capuans, whose well-planned city was on a broad, open plain. Blocks of apartments were built of sun-dried brick, but, as regulations restricted the thickness of party walls to 500 mm, they could be only one storey high ( see ...

Chicago School

Chicago School   Reference library

James F. O’Gorman

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
334 words
Illustration(s):
1

...School The group of innovative mid-west architects led by William Le Baron Jenney ( 1832–1907 ), whose Home Insurance Building ( 1884 ) has often been cited as the first ‘skyscraper’. The urbanization of agrarian America that began in the 1880s , together with the industrial and technological advances of the 19th century, account for the rise of the tall office building, while rebuilding after the fire which destroyed the centre of Chicago in 1871 provided an economic context. New building materials, including structural iron and then steel, plate...

Mount, William Sidney

Mount, William Sidney (26 Nov 1807)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,288 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that year, was a great success. It depicts a farm parlor full of dancing male and female “rustics,” lightly caricatured in their dress and expressions. Amusing as his New York audience found country manners, however, he soon realized that he could probe a deeper vein in this agrarian ideal. On the one hand, Americans considered the landowning and hardworking farmer the ideal American; on the other, because political, social and economic decision makers (and patrons of the arts) tended to be city people, they saw the rural citizen as a shrewd bumpkin. This...

Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( 1907 ) in Pittsburgh used heavy stone masonry with smooth surfaces, relatively little ornamentation, and no exterior buttresses. This style was popular commercially and for the design of college campuses such as Bryn Mawr ( 1887 ) and Duke University ( 1932 ). Despite the agrarian philosophies of its practitioners, the verticality of the Gothic style also encouraged its application to the design of tall urban buildings, such as William Johnston and Thomas Ustick Walter 's Jayne Building in Philadelphia ( 1849–51 ). Long, continuous vertical lines could...

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