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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Farms and Farmers in the United States

Farms and Farmers in the United States   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,004 words
Illustration(s):
1

...republican virtue in the new republic, unless they joined together. In the ratification debates ( 1787–1789 ), essayists assumed agrarian identities like “Federal Farmer” or “A Farmer,” and addressed “freeholders” and “yeomen.” When western farmers protested a federal tax on whiskey during George Washington's presidency, however, Washington's secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton , attacked their agrarianism with military force in western Pennsylvania. Still, voters, in 1800 , overwhelmingly preferred Thomas Jefferson's hopeful vision of a...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
599 words
Illustration(s):
1

...au Moyen Âge, de la fin de l'empire romain au XVI e siècle, Paris, 1950. G. Duby , Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West , London, 1968. The Agrarian History of England and Wales I: 2: A.D. 43-1042 , H. P. R. Finberg (ed.), Cambridge, 1972. C. H. Berman , Medieval Agriculture, the Southern French Countryside, and the Early Cistercians , Philadelphia, 1986. The Agrarian History of England and Wales II: 1042-1350 , H. E. Hallam (ed.), Cambridge, 1988. L'Ambiente vegetale nell'alto Medioevo , 1990(“SSAM”, 37). La Croissance agricole...

Carthage

Carthage   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
864 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from the Levant (in this case, Tyre), was located on a natural harbor in modern Tunisia on the North African coast. Though virtually all the historical references to Carthage come from writings of its enemies, the city surpassed the fame of any other Phoenician colony and had an agrarian base that supplemented its role as trading post and enabled a rapid period of urbanization. Though the legendary founding is set at 814 bce , the archaeological record suggests no permanent residency until over half a century later. The archaeological record, however, is...

Chicago School

Chicago School   Reference library

James F. O’Gorman

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
334 words
Illustration(s):
1

...School The group of innovative mid-west architects led by William Le Baron Jenney ( 1832–1907 ), whose Home Insurance Building ( 1884 ) has often been cited as the first ‘skyscraper’. The urbanization of agrarian America that began in the 1880s , together with the industrial and technological advances of the 19th century, account for the rise of the tall office building, while rebuilding after the fire which destroyed the centre of Chicago in 1871 provided an economic context. New building materials, including structural iron and then steel, plate...

Protest

Protest   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,540 words
Illustration(s):
1

...remind us that protest is a thread that runs through all of modern history, yet they also tell us that protest is intimately linked to the character of states and the development of economies. Agrarian Outrage. The first case, the slaughter of cattle and the assassination of their owner near Longford, exhibits an important form of rural protest, the so-called “agrarian outrage,” common to the Irish countryside between 1760 and 1900 . The outrage involved personal violence carried out by oath-bound secret societies. Charles Tilly's extensive study of...

Baltic States

Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,731 words
Illustration(s):
1

...butter and meat on the difficult world market in the interwar period. Great Britain and Germany were their main trade partners. The Great Depression was severe in the Baltic republics. As agrarian countries, they suffered from price cuts that hurt agrarian exports, as well as from the difficulties on the export market. Even Great Britain introduced restrictions on agrarian imports. The clearing system of Germany, whereby trade between two countries was conducted on an account basis, made the Baltic republics fear political dependence. Estonia reacted to these...

Mamlūk State

Mamlūk State   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
870 words
Illustration(s):
1

...DC/Purchase, F1934.20 Sultan Baybars ( r. 1260–1277 ) spent much of his reign battling the Crusader states in Syria-Palestine and securing his eastern frontiers against invasions from Il-khanid Iran. Yet he did not neglect the infrastructure of his regime. The Nile Valley 's agrarian resources were inventoried, and the Ayyūbid system of land allotments to militarists ( iqṭāʿ s) was restructured. In consequence of Baybars 's policies and those of his major successors, Qalāwūn ( r. 1279–1290 ) and al-Nāṣir Muḥammad ( r. 1310–1341 ), a state far more...

Peasantry

Peasantry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,939 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Wilhelm . Agrarian Fluctuations in Europe from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Centuries . London, 1980. Allen, Robert C. Enclosure and the Yeoman: The Agricultural Revolution of the South Midlands, 1450–1850 . Oxford, 1992. Bloch, Marc . French Rural History: An Essay on Its Basic Characteristics . Berkeley, 1966. Boserup, Ester . The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure . Chicago, 1965. Brenner, Robert . The Agrarian Roots of European Capitalism. In The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure...

Labours of the months

Labours of the months   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
506 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the months The iconographical theme of the months, known from Antiquity, was taken up in the Carolingian period. At that time it decorated several illuminated manuscripts in which isolated characters performed agrarian tasks or presented objects. But it was in the 12th and 13th cc. that the illustration of the months truly developed. During these two centuries, the West, but especially Italy and still more France , integrated this motif into the decoration of their churches. The majority of these cycles were sculpted on the façade of buildings,...

Bobbio

Bobbio   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
459 words
Illustration(s):
1

...apogee was in the 8th-9th centuries. This wealth attracted covetousness, the Carolingians appointed Abbots the monks themselves appealed to Wala of Corbie in 834 who introduced the Reform of Benedict of Aniane . The polyptychs of 862 and 883 offer a glimpse of the agrarian history of northern Italy . The decline of Carolingian power sharpened the appetites of the bishops of Tortona and Piacenza ; in 983 Gerbert of Aurillac , appointed Abbot lamented the misery into which the monks had fallen. The creation of a bishopric at Bobbio itself...

Tarkington, Booth

Tarkington, Booth   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
504 words
Illustration(s):
1

...place in the early decades of the 20th century . As the “worst boy in town,” Penrod (and his older analog, Willie Baxter in Seventeen ) is an apt representation of the early 20th-century boy, for he stands bestride not only the two centuries, but also the move from an agrarian economy to an industrial one, the move from a rural society to an urban one, and he embodies the era's conflicting, often ambivalent ideas about race. Booth Tarkington . Front cover illustration by Gordon Grant from Penrod (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1914). Reproduced...

Ecuador, Indigenous Uprisings in

Ecuador, Indigenous Uprisings in   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,294 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of agrarian reform in 1964 . In the 1960s new indigenous organizations surfaced that emphasized ethnic aspects of their struggle, including a defense of culture, religion, medicine, and bilingual education. Rather than being allied with labor unions and the political left, progressive sectors of the Catholic Church under the influence of liberation theology encouraged their development. The first significant ethnic organization was the Shuar Federation that Salesian missionaries helped establish in the early 1960s. After the passage of agrarian reform...

Farmers’ Distress and Suicides

Farmers’ Distress and Suicides   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,169 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Distress and Suicides Background The agrarian structure in India has undergone three significant phases of change during the last six decades. First, the land reforms across the country helped to correct some of the land market distortions albeit with diverse results. The issues governing land in the country underwent significant changes and while solving many of the ulcerating problems, generated a few new ones. Reverse and/or hidden tenancy, high density of non-viable holdings, and imperfections in the land market are the prominent fallouts among...

El Salvador

El Salvador   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,870 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in an attempt to create a nation of independent coffee producers. A class of entrepreneurial smallholding peasants did manage to survive well into the early twentieth century, but most lost their lands soon after as a result of population pressures and a more forceful project of agrarian expropriation carried out by an increasingly powerful landed elite tied to the Meléndez-Quiñónez dynasty that ruled El Salvador from 1912 until 1927. These disenfranchised peasants swelled the numbers of a fledgling rural proletariat, providing fertile ground for the...

Mexican Revolution

Mexican Revolution   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,758 words
Illustration(s):
1

...some cases they introduced long-overdue reforms. Rebuilding Mexico. Bolstered by both rising revenues and his election as president in 1917 , Carranza initiated the daunting task of rebuilding Mexico. Encountering popular impatience, he hesitantly began to address demands for agrarian reform and workers' rights, but he also returned confiscated estates to landowners and suppressed workers' mobilization. His lasting accomplishment was the constitution of 1917 , which served as a blueprint for future reform. While Carranza advocated merely upgrading the...

Sheep and Goats

Sheep and Goats   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,035 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of animal husbandry. In southern Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor, on the other hand, where pastoral activity was restricted to sparse alpine pastures or sun-parched plains, the sheep and goats, capable of feeding on such stunted grass growth, enjoyed a far wider hegemony. Agrarian Systems When population pressure led to an extension of arable activity at the expense of pastoral reserves, across northwestern and southern Europe ( 1100–1370 and after 1520 ), these pastoral lands had a new economic value. Both arable farmers and their pastoral counterparts...

Silk Road

Silk Road   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,799 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Trade depended on a precarious balance between these four cultures. Nomads, in exchange for protection rents (called “tribute” by the Chinese), ensured that traders could cross the steppe safely. The traders needed access to capital and markets supplied by the agrarian civilizations. The agrarian oases supported lodging and restocking points called caravanserai. The rise and fall of trade depended on the military and commercial stability of all the participants. It was a highly profitable, but volatile, enterprise, suitable only for high rollers. The extremely...

Moldova

Moldova   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
586 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and Russian populations east of the Dniester, who declared their independence from Moldova as the Transdniester Republic. War raged between the two, with Transdniester supported by the Russian 14th Army. In August 1992 a ceasefire was declared. The former Communists of the Agrarian Democratic Party won multiparty elections in 1994 . A referendum rejected reunification with Romania. Parliament voted to join the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In 1994 a new constitution established a presidential parliamentary republic. In 1995 Transdniester...

Estonia

Estonia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
567 words
Illustration(s):
1

...technology industry. The agricultural sector is small, its main products being grain, potatoes, and vegetables. History Annexed by Russia in 1709 , Estonia regained its independence in 1918 , at the time of the Bolshevik revolution. Its history during the 1920s was of an agrarian revolution, whereby the great estates of the Baltic barons (mostly German) were broken up, creating a prosperous peasantry. An attempted communist uprising in 1924 was suppressed. Its economy was adversely affected by the Great Depression and from 1934 until 1939 it...

Benin

Benin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
527 words
Illustration(s):
1

...until Kérékou assumed the presidency in 1972 . He declared Marxism‐Leninism as his principle of government in 1974 , and in 1975 proclaimed a new constitution, established a one‐party state, and changed his country's name to the People's Republic of Benin. He introduced agrarian and educational reforms to reduce the social and economic inequalities between north and south. Democratization (from 1989) In 1989 popular protests against his economic austerity measures forced Kérékou to concede political liberalization. The subsequent elections in March...

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