You are looking at 1-20 of 159 entries  for:

  • All: actual and virtual x
  • Results with images only x
clear all

View:

Overview

actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...without reducing the growth of new print publications, and the natural division between modern books and ancient texts has not disappeared. The digitization of new books, of course, is merely a new form of publication, and the digitization of current publications is fraught with legal issues of copyright. On the other hand, the digitization of ancient books and MSS not only provides access to their texts but is closely related to issues of preservation. The future of Chinese digital books and virtual libraries is as unpredictable as the technology that...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between graceful 14 th -century Italian book illustration and the panel paintings and frescos of the early Renaissance; and between the homely, engaging, and sometimes comic miniatures of southern Netherlandish books of around 1500 and the paintings of the Flemish primitives, from the Van Eycks to the Bruegels. That is as one would expect. Often, in fact, they were the same actual craftsmen, working in different media. Most MSS are transcribed from other MSS, and absorb something of their exemplars and of their creator’s own time. The lines of textual...

virtual reality

virtual reality   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
837 words
Illustration(s):
1

...upwards when they are dropped! Finally, a significant proportion of people who view virtual worlds using helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) suffer from the side-effects of VR sickness , common symptoms of which include eye-strain, nausea, and a loss of balance. VR sickness seems to be related to motion sickness and has many contributory causes. One is the vestibular conflicts which are caused by the (small) time delays that occur between a person's actual bodily movements and the HMD being updated to reflect those movements. Another is the optical quality of the...

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality   Reference library

Horea Avram

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,317 words
Illustration(s):
1

...projects, the work is concerned with immersivity, depth of field, and the “perfect” illusion: the virtual objects are rendered tridimensionally, image’s flatness is replaced by profoundness, and immersion substitutes arm’s-length visual experience. The viewer seems to be literally inside the convergent space, among the objects and images (real and virtual), and not in a detached, “cinematic” mode of perception. Another type of AR use is projective solutions (through spatial displays): the actual site of the work is used as a projection surface, therefore...

allegory

allegory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,899 words
Illustration(s):
1

...network existing in another domain of experience. This is not the same thing as the passage from virtual to actual described by Greimas (i.e., from abstract relations to a narrative articulation of those relations). The allegorical meaning of a text is mimetic and referential, replicating in the domain of ideas and feelings the structure of events. The movement is hence the opposite of the virtual-actual transition. This notion of levels or planes of signifying and signification raises in turn the problem of the transfer from one to the other(s). On the basis...

Conditional and Convective Instability

Conditional and Convective Instability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,604 words
Illustration(s):
2

...temperature change with displacement will then be at the dry adiabatic lapse rate. (Strictly, it is lapse rates of virtual temperature that apply, since the water vapor mixing ratio is among the factors determining the air density. [ See Temperature .] The virtual temperature of moist air is the temperature that air without water vapor would have if both had the same density and pressure. The difference between temperature and virtual temperature is usually quite small.) If the surrounding air has a lapse rate less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate, the...

Northeastern Mexico

Northeastern Mexico   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,874 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mexico , a region that can be defined as one east of a virtual line linking the presentday towns of Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, and Saltillo and north of the rivers Pánuco, Moctezuma, and San Juan, that is to say, beyond the sixteenth-century limits of Mesoamerica. At the time that Cortés and his men reached the Veracruz shores in 1517 , these vast expanses of land were in fact occupied by nomadic groups of hunters and gatherers, as well as by some marginal semipermanent agriculturists, who were often called by a collective Nahuatl name, the ...

Water Vapor

Water Vapor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,391 words
Illustration(s):
4

...has a virtual temperature slightly greater than its actual temperature. [ See Temperature .] Water exists in the atmosphere in all three of its common phases—vapor, liquid, and solid (there are actually several different phases of ice, but those details are beyond this discussion). It is constantly changing between them. In the atmosphere, there are four phase changes involving water vapor: evaporation or vaporization is the change from liquid to vapor; condensation is the change from vapor to liquid; sublimation is the change from solid to vapor; and...

Leyte Gulf, Battle of

Leyte Gulf, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,853 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Two U.S. Coast Guard manned tank landing ships (USS LST-206 and USS LST-22) in the surf on Leyte, while soldiers build piers of sandbags to speed unloading operations on October 1, 1944. National Archives and Records Administration Planning began for a landing on Leyte, a key island on the eastern side of the Philippines . The amphibious assets of Admiral William F. Halsey ’s Third Fleet were reassigned to Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid ’s Seventh Fleet. The Seventh Fleet was to effect the actual landings at Leyte Gulf, while Halsey’s orders were to have...

Midway, Battle of

Midway, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,891 words
Illustration(s):
1

...While the raid caused little actual damage, it dealt a blow to Japanese national pride and convinced Yamamoto that what remained of the U.S. fleet must be destroyed. Battle of Midway. SBD “Dauntless” dive bombers from USS Hornet (CV-8) approaching the burning Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma to make the third set of attacks on her, during the early afternoon of June 6, 1942. Mikuma had been hit earlier by strikes from Hornet and USS Enterprise (CV-6), leaving her dead in the water and fatally damaged. National Archives and Records Administration To...

Johns, Jasper

Johns, Jasper (15 May 1930)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,979 words
Illustration(s):
1

...extensive reading of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in 1961 . Through Cage, Johns met Merce Cunningham and for many years worked with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company; he designed costumes and on one occasion designed a set based on Duchamp's Large Glass . Johns had incorporated plaster casts in his earliest paintings, and in 1958 he began to make sculptures of everyday objects, such as lightbulbs and torches. Fashioned in actual size, these sculptures at first glance appeared to be castings, although they were not. The sculptures thus raised...

Dialectology

Dialectology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,554 words
Illustration(s):
4

...sources, and thus can produce a large corpus at relatively low expense. The disadvantage is that it relies on amateurs who may not be actual speakers of the dialect, and who may have no training in phonetic transcription or other phases of language study. The advantage of the interview method is that the interviewer can make sure that the consultants are true speakers of the dialect, that they understand what is being asked, and that their answers are relevant and authentic. Its principal disadvantage is that it is both expensive and time-consuming, and thus...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Christopher S. Wood and Michael Kubovy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,651 words
Illustration(s):
9

...will appear distorted and therefore correct. It has been argued that the discovery of perspective by Brunelleschi and Alberti, together with the writings of Piero, Leonardo, and Dürer, represented a singular moment when the fine arts made an actual contribution to the history of science. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many more artists and amateurs wrote treatises on perspective. Some of the most important were Jean Cousin’s “Livre de perspective” ( 1560 ), Daniele Barbaro’s “La pratica della perspettiva” ( 1569 ), and Giacomo da Vignola’s “Le...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,956 words
Illustration(s):
10

...appear distorted and therefore correct. It has been argued that the discovery of perspective by Brunelleschi and Alberti, together with the writings of Piero, Leonardo, and Dürer, represented a singular moment when the fine arts made an actual contribution to the history of science. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many more artists and amateurs wrote treatises on perspective. Some of the most important were Jean Cousin 's Livre de perspective ( 1560 ), Daniele Barbaro 's La pratica della perspettiva ( 1569 ), and Giacomo da Vignola 's ...

Intellectuals

Intellectuals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,332 words
Illustration(s):
1

...such as Martin Robison Delany , Malcolm X, and others have promoted nationalist sentiments and ideals. But no category of intellectual engagement is fixed; ideas and ideologies must reflect specific circumstances, and this complexity has been reflected in black intellectual development. Meanwhile, the debates and actual struggles involved in black Americans’ attempts at achieving nationalism, integrationism, or some balance of the two have served to influence other social justice movements in the United States and around the world. Black women have worked...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,764 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on surfaces, materials are brought and applied in order to make it seem as if forms had been placed in a virtual space. From the standpoint afforded by this framework, Western optical naturalism is a construction of virtual space as primarily metric, physical, and egocentric, that is, a construction of virtual forms in virtual light in relation to a single viewer. For the most part, Western art history and criticism have been preoccupied with the construction of virtual spaces, their problems and implications, and much less concerned with their correlative...

Photography, Ship

Photography, Ship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,309 words
Illustration(s):
1

...American and English Yachts with Edward Burgess in 1887 , and he published The Yachtsman’s Souvenir in 1889 . These two successful publications, which included photographs of some of the greatest yachts of the time, were followed by Henry G. Peabody ’s Representative American Yachts in 1893 . Like Levick , Morris Rosenfeld was beginning his successful career at the turn of the twentieth century, and he accepted assignments from Levick early on. During the first two decades of the twentieth century, Levick and Rosenfeld had a virtual monopoly...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Richard Brilliant and Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,834 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in Greek art, and “Homer” himself may never have existed. The classical “Homer” can be differentiated from Dickens’s Fagin, who existed only in fictive time, but they do share many features of inventive characterization. More closely, perhaps, the fictive image of “Homer” resembles those actual personages whose participatory appearance in historical novels imparts an air of veracity, or authenticity, especially in the figures of Napoleon and the Russian generals in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace , Walter Scott’s medieval English kings and nobles, and Gore Vidal’s...

Jacobs, Kenneth Sydney

Jacobs, Kenneth Sydney (born 5 October 1917)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Law
Length:
2,883 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to prior sales, was not an ‘excise duty’, thereby following Dennis Hotels v Victoria ( 1960 ) and Dickenson's Arcade v Tasmania ( 1974 ). Jacobs, in a dissenting judgment many found disconcerting at the time but which proved to be prescient, saw those cases as a ‘bulge’ in the otherwise ‘coherent pattern of decision’, sending ‘a danger signal’ of ‘strain and distortion’. Unless this tendency was ‘curbed’, he warned, the Court must face ‘the virtual supersession of s90 or a need at some later time to cry halt’. While stressing that the Court should...

palaeomagnetism: techniques and remanent magnetization

palaeomagnetism: techniques and remanent magnetization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,521 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as secondary, and field-based tests support this assignment. Examples of CRM acquisition include the growth of authigenic magnetic phases in sedimentary rocks, the oxidation of a magnetic phase and replacement by a second magnetic mineral, and the alteration of an iron-bearing silicate mineral into a magnetic iron oxide and other silicate minerals. CRMs do not always faithfully record the direction of the ambient field as the time of magnetization blocking their directions may be a function of both the pre-existing magnetization and the actual process of...

View: