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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,755 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In addition to legislative activity, judicial activity—first in the Imperial Court and later, after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, in the Federal Court of Justice—has played a large role in the development of private law. The Federal Constitutional Court monitors compliance with the constitution. In addition to legal interpretation and development by judges, Germany has profited from a systematic legal scholarship which grew out of the continuation of the tradition of Roman law established in the Middle Ages. [ See also European...

Lawyers

Lawyers   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,849 words
Illustration(s):
1

...has enjoyed considerable autonomy in policing its monopoly and monitoring disciplinary processes. Yet no occupational group, however well intentioned, can set aside its own interests on matters where income, status, and power are at issue. The challenge for the twenty-first century lies in reconciling the profession's need for independence from government control with its need for public accountability. This, too, is an issue on which all Americans have a stake. [ See also Academics and Education and Training, subentry on United States .]...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Legal System: A Theory of Law Reform and Social Change . New York: Academic Press, 1978. Handler, Joel F. , and Yeheskel Hasenfeld . Blame Welfare, Ignore Poverty and Inequality . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Handler, Joel F. , and Ellen Jane Hollingsworth . The “Deserving Poor”: A Study of Welfare Administration . Chicago, Ill.: Markham, 1971. Handler, Joel F. , Ellen Jane Hollingsworth , and Howard S. Erlanger . Lawyers and the Pursuit of Legal Rights . New York: Academic Press, 1978. Healy, Melissa . “Welfare Rolls Fall to Half of ’96...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
24,931 words
Illustration(s):
4

...in the wake of exposés about the plight of foreign factory workers who made goods sold by American multinationals. In all these arenas, government officials looked to industry trade associations or nongovernmental organizations to forge new standards for commercial practice, monitor economic behavior, and even punish violators of the new rules. Within still other regulatory domains, such as food safety and environmental protection, late-twentieth-century regulators increasingly encouraged companies to engage in a strategy called management regulation, which...

Consumer Protection

Consumer Protection   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
8,314 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(for the protection of investors). Supplementary to the corrective actions of established material rights, reforms in civil procedure were enacted, likewise departing, for the benefit of consumers, from the principle of formal-abstract equality. Individual commitments and self-monitoring of the economy were of course also present, but they played comparatively small roles. The expansion of consumer protection was part of the emergence of the modern interventionist state, with its responsiveness to social issues, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Its...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
18,029 words
Illustration(s):
6

...published its recommendations they were focused on the details of organization and general curriculum matters. In 2004 the first graduate law schools opened and the new framework for legal education started. The numbers entering the legal profession will still be closely monitored and strictly limited by access to the Legal Training and Research Institute, whose target is to raise the numbers graduating each year from 1,500 in 2004 to 3,000 in 2010 . Nevertheless there is not doubt that Japan is slowly expanding the provision of legal services both...

Contract

Contract   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
21,044 words
Illustration(s):
5

...original will left by the testator, the judge pretending that the testator had deliberately concealed his real intention when he wrote the document! This is emblematic of the attitude of Chinese officials of all dynasties: they usually paid the deeds great heed, as a means of monitoring human relationships, but they took the will of the parties into account as far as it served their own perception of justice and convenience. As a consequence, no rule like pacta sunt servanda can be found in law, in judicial decisions, or in public opinion. Chinese Contracts...

African Law, Sub-Saharan

African Law, Sub-Saharan   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
36,117 words
Illustration(s):
11

...the African Central Bank, with an Investment Bank and Monetary Fund are planned, requiring further protocols for their implementation. The New Programme for African Development (NEPAD), adopted by the OAU in 2001 , including the African Peer Review Mechanism, a voluntary self-monitoring mechanism, was incorporated into the African Union system in 2004 . NEPAD is designed to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable growth and development, with active participation in the world economy on an equal footing and special emphasis on the recognition of human...

Chinese Law, History of

Chinese Law, History of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
46,816 words
Illustration(s):
9

...triumphed under the Yuan ( 1260–1368 ). The Administration of Justice. The centrally administered empire was divided into circuits, numbering two dozen during the Northern Song ( 960–1127 ) and seventeen during the Southern Song ( 1127–1279 ). The circuits, designed for monitoring and supervision, not line administration, were divided into approximately three hundred prefectures, which were in turn divided into about a thousand districts, the lowest level of civil service involvement. Districts were staffed by from one to five civil servants and headed...

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